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-Wilk test, and paired Student t tests were used to compare values obtained with versus without the cover in place. Values of P ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. The Bland-Altman method was used to test for systematic differences (ie, bias) between

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fixed effects for group and the interaction between group and load. When necessary, post hoc pairwise comparisons were performed with Student t tests with the Bonferroni correction used to control for type I error. Cohen d , which provides an estimate

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

analysis —Data were evaluated via the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to ensure a normal distribution. All data were normally distributed, and results were reported as mean ± SD. d An unpaired Student t test was used to detect differences between nonlame and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

an ANOVA of the raw data were not normally distributed (ie, Shapiro-Wilk W test, P < 0.05) for all variables. Pairwise differences between groups were assessed with least squares means. A Student t test j was used to assess differences in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

signs of borderline HD). For each group, mean ± SD was calculated for each of the evaluated variables. After testing by use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test to ensure a normal distribution, a Student t test e was performed to detect differences between

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Student t test. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the screw push-out force (axial load) between uncontoured and contoured specimens within and between the PLS 1 and PLS 2 groups. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Axial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-Davis School of Veterinary Medicine Students Training in Advanced Research Program, Grayson Jockey Club Research Foundation, Center for Equine Health (with funds provided by the State of California satellite wagering fund and contributions from private donors

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

students or staff of the veterinary teaching hospital. Written owner consent was obtained before the study. The study was approved by the Purdue Animal Care and Use Committee. Data acquisition —Dogs were walked on a leash, all by the same handler, in a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

2 factors were arthrodesis method and gauge location. Maximum strains were compared between the different arthrodesis methods by use of a 1-factor repeated-measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were calculated with Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc tests

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reported here, limb movement did not appear to be affected by the wires. The 2-D kinematic analysis system used in the present study is the simplest and most economical 2-D system available and is often used to teach students about kinesiologic principles

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research