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SUMMARY

Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (hscas), an anticaking agent for mixed feed, was added to the diets of growing wethers (mean body weight, 34.0 kg) and was evaluated for its ability to diminish the clinical signs of aflatoxicosis. The experimental design consisted of 4 treatment groups of 5 wethers each, consuming concentrations of 0 g of hscas and 0 g of aflatoxin (af)/kg of feed (control; group 1); 20 g of hscas/kg (2.0%; group 2), 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 3); or 20 g of hscas (2.0%) plus 2.6 mg of af/kg (group 4). Wethers were maintained in indoor pens, with feed and water available ad libitum for 42 days. Lambs were observed twice daily and weighed weekly, and blood samples were obtained every 2 weeks for hematologic and serum biochemical analyses and for measurement of mitogen-induced lymphocyte-stimulation index. At the termination of the study, wethers were euthanatized and necropsied. Body weight gain was diminished significantly (P < 0.05) by consumption of 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed, whereas body weight of lambs consuming hscas plus af did not differ from that of control wethers. The af-alone treatment increased serum aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities, prothrombin time, and cholesterol, uric acid, and triglyceride values and decreased albumin, glucose, and urea nitrogen values, and urea-to-creatine ratio. A 27% decrease in lymphocyte stimulation index, increased spleen weight (as a percentage of body weight), and decreased liver weight were induced by af-alone treatment. Results indicate that hscas may be a high-affinity sorbent for af, that 2.6 mg of af/kg of feed induces signs of aflatoxicosis in growing wethers, that lambs may not be as resistant to the effects of af as previously thought, that 2.0% hscas can substantially reduce the toxic effects of 2.6 mg of af/kg, and that sorbent compounds may offer a novel approach to the preventive management of aflatoxicosis in livestock.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Aflatoxin (af)-contaminated and fumonisin B1 (fb 1)-contaminated (culture material from Fusarium moniliforme) diets were fed singly and in combination to growing cross-bred barrows. Six barrows (3 replicates of 2 each; mean body weight, 17.5 kg) per group were fed: 0 mg of af and 0 mg of fb 1/kg of feed (control); 2.5 mg of af/kg of feed; 100 mg of fb 1/kg of feed; or 2.5 mg of af plus 100 mg of fb 1/kg of feed for 35 days. The effects on production performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, immunologic, and pathologic measurements were evaluated. Body weight, gain, and feed consumption were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by af and af plus fb 1 diets. The fb 1 diet decreased feed consumption, and although body weight was numerically decreased, it was not statistically significant. Aflatoxin increased serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity and total iron concentration and decreased urea nitrogen concentration and unsaturated iron-binding capacity. The fb 1-alone diet increased serum GGT activity, whereas the af plus fb 1 diet increased serum aspartate transaminase, Cholinesterase, alkaline phosphatase, and GGT activities, increased rbc count, triglycerides, and total iron concentrations, and decreased unsaturated iron-binding capacity and urea nitrogen concentration. For the most part, the effects of the af plus fb 1 diet on body weight and hematologic measurements could be considered additive. However, the effect of the af plus fb 1 diet on cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities was greater than additive and was a synergistic response. One pig in the fb 1-diet group and 2 pigs in the combination-diet group died. Postmortem lesions in pigs of the fb 1-diet group consisted of ascites and increased liver weight. Observations at necropsy for pigs of the af plus fb 1-diet group consisted of hydrothorax, ascites, pulmonary edema, gastric erosions and ulceration, and increased liver and spleen weights. The af diet increased relative liver weight and resulted in liver that was pale, rubbery, and resistant to cutting. Histologic lesions consisted of hepatic necrosis or degeneration, or both, with variable degrees of bile duct proliferation in barrows of the af-diet groups. Renal tubular nephrosis was observed in barrows of the fb 1-diet group, but this was not consistent in the af plus fb 1-diet group. Cell-mediated immunity, as measured by mitogen-induced lymphoblastogenic stimulation index, was decreased in barrows of the af and fb 1-diet groups, and values in barrows given the combination diet were significantly decreased from those in barrows given the single toxin diets. It was concluded that af and fb 1 (from culture material), singly or in combination, can adversely affect clinical performance, serum biochemical, hematologic, and immunologic values and induce lesions in growing barrows. For most of the variables we evaluated under our study conditions and dosages of toxins, measurements were affected more by the combination diet than by either single toxin diet, and the toxic responses could be described as additive or more than additive, particularly for induction of liver disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research