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, pancreas, small intestines, large intestines, ovaries, oviducts, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, bladder, fat body, or kidneys. 4 For visual examination of the heart, stomach, and spleen, a left lateral approach is preferred, whereas the right

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sixty-eight cattle under general anesthesia were splenectomized. The transthoracic approach was used to provide better access to the spleen and to facilitate ligature of the major splenic vessels. The procedure was easier and less time-consuming, compared with other surgical approaches, and is considered to be less stressful to the animals. Postoperative recovery was complete in 67 of 68 cattle. After surgery, 1 animal developed respiratory tract disease that was thought to have been unrelated to the surgery.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, 2 stallions) to determine the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the equine abdomen. After withholding feed for 36 hours, horses were examined from the left and right paralumbar fossae, and the visceral anatomic structures were recorded by videotape and photography. One mare developed emphysema located subcutaneously at the primary laparoscopic portal; otherwise, there were no complications. The anatomic structures of diagnostic importance that were observed in the left half of the abdomen were the hepatic duct; left lateral and quadrate lobes of the liver; stomach; spleen; left kidney with the associated nephrosplenic ligament; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; left side of the male and female reproductive tracts; urinary bladder; vaginal ring; and mesorchium. Important structures observed in the right side of the abdomen were portions of the common hepatic duct; left lateral, quadrate, and right lobes of the liver; caudate process of the liver; stomach; duodenum; right dorsal colon, epiploic foramen; omental bursa; right kidney; base of the cecum; segments of jejunum, descending colon, and ascending colon; urinary bladder; right half of the male and female reproductive tracts; and rectum.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To provide an accurate and detailed description of the laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen of horses positioned in dorsal recumbency and to compare those observations with laparoscopic anatomy of standing horses. The effects of laparoscopy and positional changes on arterial blood pressure and blood gas values also were investigated.

Design

Descriptive anatomic study.

Sample Population

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, and 2 stallions) to record the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsal recumbency.

Procedure

Feed was withheld from all horses for 36 hours. Horses, under general anesthesia, were examined in horizontal and inclined positions (head-up and head-down). Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was used, arterial blood pressure was continuously monitored, and samples for arterial blood gas measurements were taken at intervals.

Results

The main structures of diagnostic relevance observed in the caudal region of the abdomen were the urinary bladder, mesorchium and ductus deferens (left and right), left and right vaginal rings, insertion of the pre-pubic tendon, random segments of jejunum and descending colon, pelvic flexure of the ascending colon, body of the cecum, and cecocolic fold. The main structures observed in the cranial region of the abdomen were ventral surface of the diaphragm, falciform ligament and round ligaments of the liver, ventral portion of the left lateral, left medial, quadrate, and right lateral lobes of the liver, spleen, right and left ventral colons, sternal flexure of the ascending colon, apex of the cecum, and stomach.

Conclusions

Alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory function in response to pneumoperitoneum and various positional changes indicated the need for continuous and throrough anesthetic monitoring and support. Comparison of anatomic observations made in dorsally recumbent, inclined horses with those reported for standing horses should enable practitioners to make patient positioning decisions that best suit access to specific visceral structures. Development of special instrumentation for manipulation of the viscera in horses, particularly the intestinal tract, would increase the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of laparoscopy during dorsal recumbency. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:923–931)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of pneumoperitoneum and the “chimney effect” on the development of port site metastasis. A new experimental animal model using Furka's spleen tissue suspension . Magy Seb 2005 ; 58 : 89 – 92 . 17. Neuhaus SJ Watson DI Ellis T , et al

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and entering the abdomen. Intestinal perforation is a serious complication that could result in peritonitis. In dogs, the greatest risk of trauma is to the spleen, with a reported incidence of 7% to 18%. 9 , 53 , 55 , 58 , 59 , 60 If organ trauma is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Assoc 2014 ; 245 : 571 – 577 . 10.2460/javma.245.5.571 5. Pearson H . The complications of ovariohysterectomy in the bitch . J Small Anim Pract 1973 ; 14 : 257 – 266 . 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1973.tb06457.x 6. Richter M . Spleen . In

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and exit sites and midcatheter region), jugular vein, and cranial vena cava as well as from the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, prescapular lymph nodes, and adrenal glands. Additional specimens of grossly abnormal tissues were collected when

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

increase in cardiac output has also been identified in dogs, possibly attributable to the increase in pressure propelling blood from the splanchnic bed and spleen back to the heart. 2 In the study cats, SVRI was inconsistently increased, and it is possible

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and gastrostomy catheter require a total of 4 blind needle placements into the gastric lumen within a 2-cm 2 area of distention. Theoretically, this may increase the chance of lacerating viscera, such as the spleen, although laceration would be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research