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SUMMARY

Sublethal irradiation of BALB/c mice 4 hours prior to inoculation with 5 × 104 virulent Brucella abortus, caused significant (P < 0.01) reductions in bacterial numbers in comparison with numbers in unirradiated controls. Numbers of brucellae in the spleen were significantly lower by 5 days after inoculation and decreased thereafter, so that at 2 and 3 weeks after inoculation, there were up to 1,000-fold fewer organisms in the spleen of irradiated mice. The number of brucellae in the spleen increased in irradiated mice thereafter. The course of events in the liver was similar, but developed more slowly, and peak differences in bacterial numbers were about 1 log less. These phenomena were not attributable to differences in implantation of brucellae in the liver or spleen, nor to an abnormal distribution of organisms in other organs of irradiated mice. Irradiation of mice during the plateau phase of infection also resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reductions in bacterial counts in the spleen during the succeeding 4 weeks. Macrophage activation in the spleen, measured by a Listeria monocytogenes-killing assay, was significantly (P < 0.01) increased by irradiation alone at 1 week after inoculation and at that time was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in B abortus -infected, irradiated mice than in B abortus-infected controls. Histologic, cytologic, and immunologic studies revealed that the decrease in numbers of organisms between 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation in irradiated mice occurred at a time when their immune response to B abortus was suppressed and when numbers of neutrophils and monocytes infiltrating the spleen were significantly (P < 0.01) diminished. The increase in numbers of B abortus in organs of irradiated mice that began after the third week coincided with recovery of the immune response and an increase in numbers of neutrophils and monocytes in the infected organs. The course of B abortus infection was not substantially altered during the first 11 days after inoculation in mice infected at the height of a profound monocytopenia and neutropenia induced by azathioprine, a drug that by itself failed to activate macrophages. We hypothesized that, in irradiated mice, a rapid radiation-induced activation of resident macrophages to a brucellacidal state was coupled with an absence of newly formed monocytes in which virulent strains of B abortus could establish persistent infection, and that as susceptible monocytes emerged in mice recovering from the effects of irradiation, chronic infection became established.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fetal infectivity of Ehrlichia risticii was investigated in 19 ponies that were E risticii negative on the basis of results of an indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) test. Thirteen pregnant ponies were infected by iv administration of E risticii between 90 and 180 days of gestation. Six pregnant ponies served as noninfected controls. Each infected pony had clinical signs of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, was confirmed to be ehrlichemic, and developed an ifa titer to E risticii. Two infected ponies became recumbent, were unresponsive to supportive care, and were euthanatized. After recovery from clinical illness, the remaining ponies were observed throughout gestation for reproductive abnormalities. On abortion, each fetus was necropsied and tissue specimens from the liver, bone marrow, spleen, colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes were inoculated into canine monocyte cell cultures. Six infected ponies aborted at a mean 217 days of gestation, which was between postinoculation days 65 and 111. Five fetuses were recovered for evaluation, and E risticii was isolated from 4 of them. All 5 fetuses recovered had similar histologic findings, including enterocolitis, periportal hepatitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia with necrosis of the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. All 5 fetuses tested negative for IgG to E risticii, although 3 had low IgM titer to E risticii. The remaining 5 infected ponies had normal parturition. Presuckle ifa titer to E risticii was measured in 4 of the term foals, and results for 3 were positive. Two foals from infected ponies were monitored for 6 months and daily gain in body weight was comparable to that of a control foal. None of the control ponies became ill or seroconverted during the clinical illness phase, and none aborted throughout gestation. Two control ponies seroconverted to E risticii 6 weeks before parturition. Results of this study indicate that E risticii is a primary abortifacient under experimental conditions.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Two indirect elisa containing outer membrane protein (omp) and lipopolysaccharide (lps) antigens from a field isolate of Salmonella choleraesuis var kunzendorf developed and evaluated in experimentally infected and uninfected control pigs. Experimentally induced infection with S choleraesuis was successfully established in 10 pigs by oral inoculation with 108 organisms, and 3 pigs died of clinical salmonellosis at postinoculation (pi) weeks 1, 2, and 4. Swab specimens from tonsils, nostrils, and rectum of pigs were obtained for culture, and sera were evaluated at weekly intervals for 9 weeks after inoculation. The elisa containing omp and lps antigens with either anti-swine IgG or protein albumin-to-globulin ratio (antiglobulin) conjugates were standardized for serologic evaluation. All 4 elisa (2 omp and 2 lps) detected seroconversion by pi week 3 and had sensitivities and specificities of 97.8 and 88.8, 100 and 100, 95.6 and 88.8, and 93.3 and 72.5%, at their ideal cutoff points (negative mean optical density + 2 sd). There was excellent agreement between all 4 elisa systems as determined by kappa values. Cultures of fecal, tonsil, and nasal swab specimens were positive for S choleraesuis until the fourth week of infection. Fecal swab specimens from 1 pig were positive for S choleraesuis until pl week 7. Persistent infection after antemortem culture results were negative was detected by all 4 elisa, which indicated consistently high titers until the end of pi week 9. Conventional bacteriologic examination of intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung, liver, spleen, and bile yielded positive results for S choleraesuis in the 3 pigs that died of clinical infection, whereas results were negative in the other 7 pigs infected by the end of pl week 9. Histologic examination of lung, liver, spleen, intestines, and mesenteric lymph nodes from the 3 pigs that died of S choleraesuis infection revealed severe ulceration and inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa of the intestine, whereas minimal changes were observed in other organs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pregnant sows, immune against pseudorabies after vaccination, were inoculated at 70 days of gestation either with autologous blood mononuclear cells that had been infected in vitro with pseudorabies virus (prv) or with cell-free prv. The infected cells or cell-free prv were inoculated surgically into the arteria uterina.

Eight sows (A to H) had been vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine. The titer of seroneutralizing antibodies in their serum varied between 12 and 48. Five sows (A to E) were inoculated with autologous mononuclear cells, infected either with a Belgian prv field strain or with the Northern Ireland prv strain NIA3. These 5 sows aborted their fetuses: 2 of them (B and C) 3 days after inoculation, and the other 3 (A, D, and E) 10, 11, and 12 days after inoculation, respectively. Sows F, G, and H were inoculated with a cell-free prv field strain. They farrowed healthy litters after normal gestation. Neutralizing antibodies were absent against prv in the sera of the newborn pigs, which were obtained prior to the uptake of colostrum.

The 23 fetuses that were aborted in sows B and C 3 days after the inoculation were homogeneous in appearance and size. Foci of necrosis were not detected in the liver. Viral antigens were located by immunofluorescence in individual cells in lungs, liver, and spleen of 15 fetuses. Virus was isolated from the liver, lungs, or body fluids of 12 fetuses.

The 39 fetuses that were aborted in sows A, D, and E between 10 and 12 days after inoculation were of 2 types: 17 were mummified and 22 were normal-appearing. Foci of necrosis were found in the liver of all mummified fetuses and 13 of the normal-appearing fetuses. In fetuses with foci of necrosis in the liver, viral antigens were located in groups of cells in the liver, lungs, and spleen. Virus was isolated from 16 normal-appearing fetuses and from 11 mummified fetuses.

Pseudorabies virus was isolated from vaginal excretions of sows A and D until 1 and 2 days after abortion, respectively, and of sows B and C until 4 and 5 days after abortion, respectively. Virus was not isolated from sow E.

It was concluded that prv can reach the uterine and fetal tissues, via infected mononuclear cells, in the presence of circulating antibodies induced on vaccination. This cell-associated spread led to abortion. Cell-free virus did not induce abortion under similar circumstances.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An experiment was conducted to determine whether a persistent Salmonella newport infection could be established in swine, to determine duration of shedding and distribution of the organism in internal organs, and to determine whether changes occurred in antimicrobial susceptibility or plasmid profile of the organism during the course of long-term infection. Naturally farrowed Salmonella-free pigs (n = 22) were orally exposed to a multiply antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic strain of S newport when they were 7 weeks old. Tonsillar and rectal swab specimens were examined bacteriologically for S newport during the first week after exposure, then weekly for 7 weeks. Fecal samples were likewise examined weekly or every 2 weeks for 28 weeks after exposure. Necropsies of 2 or 3 randomly selected pigs were conducted at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks after exposure. A total of 45 specimens/pig representing the following internal organs or tissues were examined bacteriologically for S newport: liver, spleen, kidney, gallbladder, heart, heart blood, lung, stomach, and tonsils; segments of the intestinal tract with corresponding lymph nodes; and lymph nodes from lymphocenters of the head and neck, thoracic cavity, thoracic limbs, abdominal viscera, and abdominal wall. Exposure to S newport induced a mild and transient clinical response. The organism was recovered from 97% of tonsillar swab specimens and 89% of rectal swab specimens collected during 7 weeks after exposure and from 98% of fecal samples collected during 28 weeks after exposure. At necropsy, S newport was recovered most frequently from tonsils (86.4%), followed by segments of the intestinal tract from ileum to rectum (81.8% recovery from cecal contents), and from mandibular (68.2%), jejunal (50%), and ileocolic (45.5%) lymph nodes. Sporadic recoveries of the organism were made from other lymph nodes and from gallbladder, stomach, kidney, spleen, liver, and heart, varying from 2 to 20 weeks after exposure. The cranial portion of jejunum, medial iliac lymph nodes, dorsal superficial cervical lymph node, and heart blood of all pigs were culture-negative. Of 26 representative isolates of S newport recovered from body organs or feces during 28 weeks after exposure, 4 (15.4%) underwent changes in antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Changes in plasmid profile of the organism were not detected during longterm infection of swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To characterize Listeria monocytogenes from tissues of channel catfish for their ability to cause hemolysis and grow intracellularly in mouse macrophages.

Samples

15 isolates from processed fillets and 15 isolates from the brain, spleen, and kidneys.

Procedure

Serotype and hemolytic activity of L monocytogenes isolates were evaluated, using plate agglutination and CAMP tests, respectively. Invasiveness of L monocytogenes was determined by inoculating each strain or isolate on J774A.1 macrophage cells. Infected cells were incubated for 0 or 3 hours and lysed; then 100 μΙ of the lysate was plated onto a brain heart infusion agar plate. Colony counts for each strain or isolate were analyzed statistically.

Results

Of 30 isolates, 19 were serotype 1 and 11 were serotype 4. Mouse J774A.1 macrophages were inoculated with catfish isolates, a wild-type (EGD) or a nonhemolytic strain of L monocytogenes. Seventy-three percent (11/15) of isolates originating from catfish organs and 100% (15/15) of isolates originating from fillets were not significantly different from the wild-type EGD strain. The nonhemolytic L monocytogenes strain used as a negative control failed to replicate. Intracellular growth of all L monocytogenes isolates decreased after an additional 3-hour incubation period with medium containing 50 μg/ml of gentamicin.

Conclusions

Similar to the wild-type EGD strain, most channel catfish L monocytogenes isolates were hemolytic, serotype 1 or 4, and were invasive for mouse J774A.1 macrophages.

Clinical Relevance

L monocytogenes growth in mouse macrophages may serve as an in vitro model for determining virulence of isolates from food products or environments. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1125-1128)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An avirulent live Salmonella choleraesuis culture (SC-54) was evaluated for use as an effective vaccine in preventing salmonellosis caused by S choleraesuis in pigs. Eighty-two pigs, 3 to 4 weeks old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, which were designated as either vaccinates or controls. After vaccination, all pigs were examined for fecal shedding of S choleraesuis, rectal temperature, and 10 clinical variables. Significant difference was not detected between vaccinated and nonvaccinated pigs for 14 days (phase I) after intranasal administration of the vaccine. Efficacy and duration of immunity were examined by intranasally challenge exposing respective pigs from either treatment group with a virulent field isolate of S choleraesuis at 2, 8, or 20 weeks after vaccination (phases II-IV). Pigs were again evaluated for 14 days after challenge exposure, and 10 clinical variables and rectal temperature were monitored. Surviving pigs were euthanatized and evaluated for gross lesions, and samples of 7 organs were collected. These organ samples were homogenized, and level of S choleraesuisS choleraesuis infection was determined. After virulent challenge exposure during phases II-IV, the clinical status of the SC-54 vaccinates was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to that of nonvaccinates for rectal temperature, feces consistency, behavior, appetite, body condition, and mean score for the 10 clinical variables. Quantitative bacteriologic culture of the tonsil, lung, liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, ileum, and colon samples indicated consistent reduction of organ colonization in vaccinates; bacteria numbers in the mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, and ileum were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced. Gross lesions in pigs indicated reduction of penumonia in vaccinates. Pigs also had consistent weight gain throughout phases of the study after challenge exposure although the differences were not significant conclusion single intranasally administered dose SC-54 given to 3- to 4- week old pigs proved be safe and efficacious and to provide protection to pigs least 20 weeks after initial vaccination.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The clinicopathologic manifestations of bovid herpesvirus-4 (bhv-4; FCAHV strain)-induced infection of the lower portion of the urinary tract were characterized in 12 adult neutered male and 6 female specific-pathogen-free cats, and were compared with those in 12 neutered male control cats. Six neutered male and 6 female cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with bhv-4. Six neutered male control cats were given immunosuppressive doses of methylprednisolone acetate prior to inoculation of their urinary bladders with uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. Six additional neutered male control cats were exposed only to uninfected tissue culture control inoculum. All cats were observed for 90 days following inoculation. Dysuria and gross hematuria were observed in only 1 bhv-4-exposed cat. Radiographic abnormalities of the lower portion of the urinary tract were not observed. Microscopic hematuria, crystalluria, and lipiduria were identified with similar frequency in bhv-4-exposed and control cats. Results of urine culturing for bacteria, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, and viruses were negative. Viruses were not isolated from blood leukocytes collected from exposed or control cats. Three to 6 weeks after inoculation, high concentrations of bhv-4 serum antibodies were detected in all exposed cats by an indirect fluorescent antibody test.

Light microscopic examination of the urinary tract revealed multifocal lymphoid cystitis in 2 bhv-4-exposed cats. Except for suppurative bronchitis in 1 bhv-4-exposed cat given glucocorticoids, morphologic differences in urinary and extraurinary tissues were not observed. In urinary bladder tissue collected 90 days after inoculation, bhv-4 was reisolated from urinary bladder explants of all but 1 exposed cat. Virus was also isolated from a kidney explant of 1 exposed male cat, and spleen cell cocultures of 1 exposed female cat given glucocorticoids.

Bovid herpesvirus-4 (FCAHV strain) caused persistent urinary tract infections in male and female specific-pathogen-free cats. Detection of occult bhv-4 infection required isolation of virus from tissues by explantation, or demonstration of specific bhv-4 antibodies by immunofluorescent techniques. Administration of glucocorticoids prior to inoculation did not enhance morbidity associated with bhv-4 urinary tract infection. Further investigations are needed to determine the pathogenic role of bhv-4 in noninduced feline lower urinary tract disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in the liver, fibrin deposition and intralesional bacteria in the spleen, hemorrhage and intravascular bacteria in the thymus, and fibrin thrombosis in the lungs; P multocida was isolated from the liver, lungs, spleen, and all 4 implant sites. In

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research