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, miniature horses, donkeys, and mules. The avian category included chickens, geese, turkeys, and ducks. Types of injuries or illnesses were classified as lacerations or traumatic wounds, colic or gastrointestinal illness, lameness, burns, respiratory illness

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hantaviruses have emerged as agents of significant morbidity and mortality in human beings. These pathogens are maintained in nature as not clinically apparent, persistent infections in rodent reservoirs, varying with each virus, and are shed via rodent feces, urine, and salivary excretions. Human exposure to hantaviruses principally occurs through the respiratory tract route and is focal and discontinuous, paralleling the distribution of virus in reservoir species and the likelihood of human-rodent interactions. Prior to 1993, hantaviruses were established etiologic agents of human febrile nephropathies and hematologic abnormalities on several continents, exclusive of North America. An episode of severe respiratory tract illness developed in association with a group of novel hantaviruses in the United States during 1993-1994, resulting in at least 98 confirmed cases of disease from 21 states and 51 deaths. Current evidence suggests that hantaviruses of zoonotic potential have long existed across widespread areas of the United States but have gone un-recognized.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pathogens of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract require generation of mucosal cellular or humoral immune responses, with IgA being the most effective and abundant antibody class on mucosal surfaces of cats. 14 On the other hand, systemic infections

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

STANDARD PRECAUTIONS 1406       A. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE ACTIONS AND EQUIPMENT 1406          1. HAND HYGIENE 1406          2. USE OF GLOVES AND SLEEVES 1407          3. FACIAL PROTECTION 1407          4. RESPIRATORY

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

surgical mask worn with goggles or a face shield. Surgical masks provide adequate protection during most veterinary procedures that generate potentially infectious large droplets. 4. RESPIRATORY TRACT PROTECTION Respiratory tract protection is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the remaining chapters contain > 100 high-quality radiographic images. Each chapter begins with a brief description of the effects of patient positioning, including exposure factors and respiratory phase (when appropriate). The important anatomic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association