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Summary

Five cats were treated with an azathioprine suspension (2.2 mg/kg of body weight on alternate days) and 2 cats were given vehicle (controls) for 9 weeks. Complete blood and platelet counts and serum biochemistry variables were monitored weekly. Bone marrow aspirates were evaluated every 3 weeks, and core bone marrow biopsy was performed at the end of the study. Profound neutropenia (< 600 cells/μl) was observed in all treated cats, and 1 cat developed pancytopenia. Treatment was discontinued if the wbc count was < 3,000 cells/μl. Four weeks after discontinuation of azathioprine, 1 treated cat again was given azathioprine at a lower dosage (1.1 mg of azathioprine/kg on alternate days) and neutropenia recurred within 2 weeks. During treatment, 3 cats developed thrombocytosis, and 2 developed thrombocytopenia. In 4 of 5 cats, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia resolved when azathioprine was discontinued. Bone marrow cytologic examination during treatment revealed reduction of the neutrophil line, with relative increase in monocytes. Core bone marrow biopsy at the completion of the study revealed hypocellular marrow with marked decrease in the myeloid series in cats given azathioprine. One of the cats that was treated with azathioprine had a hypercellular marrow with increased numbers of mature granulocytes and precursors; however, azathioprine had been discontinued 3 weeks prior to biopsy. Alterations in serum biochemical variables were not associated with azathioprine. Two cats that were treated with azathioprine developed respiratory tract infections, and 1 of them was euthanatized during the study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine prevalence and severity of carboplatin-induced dose-limiting toxicoses in the cat.

Animals

9 healthy, 6- to 7-month-old cats weighing 4.7 (range, 3.0 to 6.5) kg.

Procedure

Cats were given a single IV bolus of carboplatin at a dosage of 150 (n = 3), 200 (n = 3), or 250 (n = 3) mg/m2 of body surface area.

Results

Dose-limiting neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were significant in all cats given carboplatin at 200 or 250 mg/m2. Weight loss, changes in appetite, and evidence of respiratory difficulty, as well as vomiting, diarrhea, or lethargy were not observed at any time during the 28-day period. At a highest dosage (250 mg/m2), the neutrophil nadir (560 ± 303 neutrophils/μl) was observed on day 17 and the platelet count nadir (96,500 ± 11,815 platelets/μl) was observed on day 14 after carboplatin administration.

Conclusions

Carboplatin appears to be safe and clinically well-tolerated when given IV as a single bolus at a dosage of 200 mg/m2 to clinically normal cats. The dose-limiting toxicity of a single IV administered bolus is neutropenia. The nadir of a 200 mg/m2 IV administered dose occurs on day 17 (1,110 ± 165 neutrophils/μl) and neutropenia (< 2,000 neutrophils/μl) lasts from day 14 through day 25 after carboplatin administration.

Clinical Relevance

The fatal dose-related pulmonary toxicosis observed in cisplatin-treated cats was inapparent in carboplatin-treated cats. To adequately determine the therapeutic role of carboplatin in tumor-bearing cats, a moderately tolerated dose of carboplatin of 200 mg/m2 given IV once every 4 weeks should be considered. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:677– 679)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

respiratory depression, hypotension, and cardiac effects. 1,12 As well as having a range of potentially serious adverse effects, apomorphine also has a high level of variability in terms of response to administration. 1,10,11,13,14 Generally, apomorphine is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subgroups C3 and T3), and tissues were collected for evaluations. Clinical monitoring and collection of data —During the acclimation and study periods, cats were monitored twice daily for evidence of behavioral, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and skin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

warm water blanket, and anesthesia was maintained via inhalation of isoflurane in oxygen with a nonrebreathing face mask. Anesthetic depth was monitored by respiratory rate and toe pinch response. Surgery —The hair was clipped from the dorsum of each

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Toxic larkspur ( Delphinium ) species have been responsible for large losses to the cattle industry in western North America since the beginning of the 20th century. 1–3 Clinical signs of larkspur poisoning in cattle include bloating, respiratory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

electromyographic activity of the reticulum and rumen of sheep . Res Vet Sci 1999 ; 66 : 119 – 127 . 10.1053/rvsc.1998.0253 8 McLeay LM , Smith BL , Reynolds GW . Cardiovascular, respiratory and temperature

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, sternal recumbency followed by lateral recumbency, bloating, and respiratory depression as well as death. 11,12 Historically, the MLA content of larkspur has been used as a predictor of toxic effects. This is somewhat valid for tall larkspur, but in low

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research