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Summary

Sixty-eight cattle under general anesthesia were splenectomized. The transthoracic approach was used to provide better access to the spleen and to facilitate ligature of the major splenic vessels. The procedure was easier and less time-consuming, compared with other surgical approaches, and is considered to be less stressful to the animals. Postoperative recovery was complete in 67 of 68 cattle. After surgery, 1 animal developed respiratory tract disease that was thought to have been unrelated to the surgery.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Eighteen dogs undergoing lateral thoracotomy at the left fifth intercostal space were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 postoperative analgesic treatment groups of 6 dogs each as follows: group A, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg of body weight, im; group B, 0.5% bupivacaine, 1.5 mg/kg given interpleurally; and group C, morphine, 1.0 mg/kg given interpleurally. Heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas tensions, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, rectal temperature, pain score, and pulmonary mechanics were recorded hourly for the first 8 hours after surgery, and at postoperative hours 12, 24, and 48. These values were compared with preoperative (control) values for each dog. Serum morphine and cortisol concentrations were measured at 10, 20, and 30 minutes, hours 1 to 8, and 12 hours after treatment administration.

All dogs had significant decreases in pHa, PaO2 , and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, and significant increases in PaCO2 and alveolar-arterial oxygen differences in the postoperative period, but these changes were less severe in group-B dogs. Decreases of 50% in lung compliance, and increases of 100 to 200% in work of breathing and of 185 to 383% in pulmonary resistance were observed in all dogs after surgery. Increases in work of breathing were lower, and returned to preoperative values earlier in group-B dogs. The inspiratory time-to-total respiratory time ratio was significantly higher in group-B dogs during post-operative hours 5 to 8, suggesting improved analgesia. Blood pressure was significantly lower in group-A dogs for the first postoperative hour. Significant decreases in rectal temperature were observed in all dogs after surgery, and hypothermia was prolonged in dogs of groups A and C. Significant differences in pain score were not observed between treatment groups. Cortisol concentration was high in all dogs after anesthesia and surgery, and was significantly increased in group-B dogs at hours 4 and 8. Significant differences in serum morphine concentration between groups A and C were only observed 10 minutes after treatment administration. In general, significant differences in physiologic variables between groups A and C were not observed.

Results of the study indicate that anesthesia and thoracotomy are associated with significant alterations in pulmonary function and lung mechanics. Interpleurally administered bupivacaine appears to be associated with fewer blood gas alterations and earlier return to normal of certain pulmonary function values. Interpleural administration of morphine does not appear to provide any advantages, in terms of analgesia or pulmonary function, compared with its im administration.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To describe alterations in respiratory and cardiovascular variables during diagnostic thoracoscopy, using bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax.

Animals

7 adult dogs.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized and instrumented for 2 episodes of cardiopulmonary monitoring that were performed at an interval of more than 14 days. The first anesthetic episode served as a control procedure for the thoracoscopy treatment performed during the second anesthetic episode. Multiple cardiopulmonary variables were evaluated by comparing changes from baseline values within treatments and between treatments.

Results

Arterial oxygen tension decreased significantly from baseline values during thoracoscopy but was unchanged during sham treatment. Arterial carbon dioxide tension, clinical shunt fraction, and systemic mean arterial pressure increased during thoracoscopy. In contrast, these variables were unaffected by the sham treatment. Heart rate and cardiac index increased during sham and thoracoscopy treatments; however, the increase was significantly greater during thoracoscopy. Total peripheral vascular resistance significantly decreased from baseline values for both treatments, but the decrease was greater during thoracoscopy. Significant changes were not observed for oxyhemoglobin saturation or pulmonary vascular resistance during either treatment. Dogs recovered without major clinical complications.

Conclusions

Significant changes were found for several cardiopulmonary variables during bilateral hemithorax ventilation with sustained pneumothorax for diagnostic thoracoscopy of clinically normal dogs.

Clinical Relevance

Diagnostic thoracoscopy with bilateral hemithorax ventilation and sustained pneumothorax is well tolerated in clinically normal dogs and may provide a diagnostic modality enabling intrathoracic procedures with less morbidity than thoracotomy for dogs with intrathoracic disease. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1494–1498)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To identify clinical indicators that may help identify postoperative pain in cats after ovariohysterectomy.

Animals

Healthy, laboratory animal source cats.

Procedure

Clinical indicators of pain were identified, and relief from pain in response to butorphanol was studied in 5 groups of cats. 10 cats had 1 hour of general anesthesia only, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia and ovariohysterectomy, followed by recovery without additional medication. 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg of body weight. Another 10 cats had general anesthesia, ovariohysterectomy, and postoperative administration of 0.3 mg butorphanol/kg. 10 cats received 0.1 mg of butorphanol/kg, IM, only. Samples and recorded data were obtained before, during, and after the anesthesia period. Clinical variables measured included heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, PCV, and blood glucose concentration. Results were compared with changes in norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol concentrations.

Results

Cats that did not receive analgesics had higher cortisol concentration than did cats without surgery and cats that received butorphanol after surgery. Systolic blood pressure measured by ultrasonic Doppler was found to be predictive of cortisol concentration, using a multiple linear regression model.

Conclusions

Cortisol concentration increased in response to surgical stress and pain, and this increase was diminished by use of butorphanol.

Clinical Relevance

Systolic blood pressure was the best clinical predictor of postoperative pain. (Am J Vet Res 1996;209:1674–1678)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Upper airway flow mechanics and arterial blood gas measurements were used to assess the efficacy of subtotal arytenoidectomy for treatment of induced left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses. Measurements were collected with the horses at rest, and trotting or pacing on a treadmill (6.38° incline) at speeds of 4.2 and 7.0 m/s. Experimental protocols were performed after right common carotid artery exteriorization (baseline), after left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (lrln), and after left subtotal arytenoidectomy.

At baseline, increasing treadmill speed progressively increased peak inspiratory and expiratory flow (Vi max and Ve max respectively), peak inspiratory and expiratory transupper airway pressure (PuI and PuE, respectively), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), minute volume (VE), and heart rate. Inspiratory and expiratory times (TI and TE, respectively) and arterial oxygen tension (Pao2) decreased with increased treadmill speed; inspiratory and expiratory impedance (ZI and ZE, respectively) did not change.

After lrln, Vi max, f, and Pao 2 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at exercise, whereas PuI, TI, and ZI significantly increased. Minute volume decreased at exercise after lrln, but the changes were not significant; lrln had no effect on Ve max PuE, ZE, heart rate, arterial carbon dioxide tension (Paco 2), or VT.

Subtotal arytenoidectomy did not improve upper airway flow mechanics or blood gas measurements impaired by laryngeal hemiplegia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of a nerve muscle pedicle (nmp) graft in restoring upper airway function was evaluated in exercising horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia. The nmp graft was created from the first cervical nerve and the omohyoideus muscle and transplanted into the left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. Seven adult Standardbreds were trained to exercise on a treadmill inclined at 6.38°. With the horses at rest and exercising at 4.2 and 7.0 m/s, the following variables were recorded: peak inspiratory and expiratory transupper airway pressures (defined as the pressure difference between a lateral tracheal catheter and a mask catheter), peak inspiratory and expiratory air flow, inspiratory and expiratory impedance, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, and respiratory frequency. Measurements were made before left recurrent laryngeal neurectomy (lrln), 28 days after lrln, and 12, 24, and 52 weeks after the nmp graft (n = 5) or sham operation (n = 2). Before lrln, exercise increased inspiratory and expiratory air flow and transupper airway pressure, whereas the impedance was unchanged. After lrln, transupper airway inspiratory pressure and impedance were significantly greater and inspiratory air flow was significantly less than baseline values at 7.0 m/s. The sham operation did not improve airway function. Twelve weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance and inspiratory air flow were significantly different (improved) from lrln values. Twenty-four weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance was not significantly different from lrln values. Fifty-two weeks after insertion of the nmp graft, inspiratory impedance was not significantly different from the baseline value and was significantly less than the value after lrln. We conclude that the nerve muscle pedicle graft can restore upper airway function within 52 weeks in horses with induced left laryngeal hemiplegia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To provide an accurate and detailed description of the laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen of horses positioned in dorsal recumbency and to compare those observations with laparoscopic anatomy of standing horses. The effects of laparoscopy and positional changes on arterial blood pressure and blood gas values also were investigated.

Design

Descriptive anatomic study.

Sample Population

Laparoscopy was performed on 6 horses (2 mares, 2 geldings, and 2 stallions) to record the normal laparoscopic anatomy of the abdomen in dorsal recumbency.

Procedure

Feed was withheld from all horses for 36 hours. Horses, under general anesthesia, were examined in horizontal and inclined positions (head-up and head-down). Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was used, arterial blood pressure was continuously monitored, and samples for arterial blood gas measurements were taken at intervals.

Results

The main structures of diagnostic relevance observed in the caudal region of the abdomen were the urinary bladder, mesorchium and ductus deferens (left and right), left and right vaginal rings, insertion of the pre-pubic tendon, random segments of jejunum and descending colon, pelvic flexure of the ascending colon, body of the cecum, and cecocolic fold. The main structures observed in the cranial region of the abdomen were ventral surface of the diaphragm, falciform ligament and round ligaments of the liver, ventral portion of the left lateral, left medial, quadrate, and right lateral lobes of the liver, spleen, right and left ventral colons, sternal flexure of the ascending colon, apex of the cecum, and stomach.

Conclusions

Alterations in cardiovascular and respiratory function in response to pneumoperitoneum and various positional changes indicated the need for continuous and throrough anesthetic monitoring and support. Comparison of anatomic observations made in dorsally recumbent, inclined horses with those reported for standing horses should enable practitioners to make patient positioning decisions that best suit access to specific visceral structures. Development of special instrumentation for manipulation of the viscera in horses, particularly the intestinal tract, would increase the diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of laparoscopy during dorsal recumbency. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:923–931)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

at the anastomotic site. The authors concluded that use of the tensiometer in a clinical setting might not be feasible. 5 Furthermore, all dogs in that study 5 developed a cough, and one of them had to be euthanized because of severe respiratory

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

euthanatized for reasons unrelated to the study were used. For each cadaver, sex was recorded and breed was estimated. No respiratory tract problems were evident in any of the dogs prior to euthanasia. Physical examination was performed on the cadavers to rule

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, j respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were monitored during anesthesia. Temperature was intermittently measured with a digital thermometer, and warming was provided as needed by use of a forced-air system. k Experimental procedure A

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research