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.9 (0.66–1.24) ≤ 5 ≤ 5 1.6 (0.52–3.73)   Liver 70 85.7 0.8 (0.64–1.03) ≤ 5 ≤ 5 1.2 (0.39–2.77)   Pancreas 215 142.3 1.5 * (1.32–1.73) 13 7.9 1.7 (0.88–2.82)  Cancer of the respiratory system 573 889

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Permanent tracheostomy has previously been recommended for the treatment of horses with severe obstruction of the upper respiratory tract that is not amenable to medical or other surgical treatments. 1–4 Short-term complications that have been

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

between obstructive sleep apnea and BWT in patients with no history of respiratory disease. This is believed to be due to an alteration of the oxidative balance secondary to repeated hypoxic episodes, which causes inflammation of the bronchial wall. 18

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, abnormal clinical signs such as exercise intolerance, respiratory distress, or stridor were found in 4 dogs. However, 1 dog (case 3) had a cough after drinking, which had started since ventriculocordectomy. No abnormalities were found during preanesthetic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

observations by owners and investigators alongside physiologic measurements, specifically respiratory rate (RR), serum cortisol concentration, HR, and HR variability (HRV), including root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences (rMSSD) and SD

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

100 2 Cursory ear exam 25 100 2 Auscultate heart 25 100 2 Pulse rate 25 100 2 Auscultate lungs 25 100 2 Respiratory rate 24 100 * 2 Palpate peripheral lymph nodes 25 100 2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (ppv) is an invasive means of respiratory support that is indicated in animals with central and peripheral neuromuscular disease, as well as in those with primary disorders of the lung parenchyma. We reviewed the medical records of 34 dogs and 7 cats treated with ppv. The animals could be allotted to 2 groups; group 1 (21/41) had primary failure of ventilation attributable to neuromuscular disease or airway obstruction, and group 2 (20/41) had primary pulmonary parenchymal disease.

Mean inspiratory time was 1.02 ± 0.2 seconds (range, 0.6 to 1.5 seconds). Mean inspiratory flow was 26.9 ± 18.5 L/min (range, 7 to 87 L/min), and was positively correlated with body weight (R = 0.57). Mean set respiratory rate was 19.6 ± 10 breaths/min (range, 5 to 60 breaths/min), with mean tidal volume of 15.5 ± 6.2 ml/kg of body weight. Positive end-expiratory pressure (peep) was required in 14 of 20 dogs in group 2. Mean peak airway pressure in group 1 was 21.6 ± 6.3 cm of H2O, whereas in group 2 it was 32.9 ± 12.5 cm of H2O. The higher peak airway pressure in group-2 dogs reflected poor lung compliance and the use of peep in dogs with parenchymal lung disease. Mean duration of ppv was 28.2 ± 29.4 hours (range, 2 to 137 hours).

The overall survival rate was 39% (16/41). Factors that appeared to correlate with survival included age, with higher mortality in animals < 1 year old or > 11 years old (P < 0.01); body weight, with mortality highest in animals < 10 kg (P < 0.05); reason for ventilation, with survival in group 1 being 57%, and in group 2, 20%; and development of complications, with 28% of animals that developed major complications surviving, compared with 48% of those that did not develop major complications. Two major complications of ppv were documented: pneumothorax and pneumonia. Twelve of 41 animals developed pneumothorax and had been ventilated by use of peak airway pressures > 25 cm of H2O, or peep. An additional 6 animals developed subclinical pneumonia during treatment with ppv.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To characterize diagnostic results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with blastomycosis during a 15-year period in Louisiana.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

115 dogs with blastomycosis.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for dogs with blastomycosis examined between 1980 and 1995. Additional data were collected from the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, via telephone interviews of owners, and by use of a random survey of the hospital population.

Results

Blastomycosis was detected mainly in young, large-breed dogs. Proximity to a body of water was a significant risk factor for affected dogs. Most dogs were affected in January and August through October. Clinical signs and results of physical examination reflected the multisystemic nature of the disease. Commonly affected systems included the respiratory tract and lymphatic, ocular, and cutaneous systems. Nodular interstitial and interstitial patterns were common findings on thoracic radiographs. Cytologic examination was successful in identifying organisms in samples from vitreous, skin, and lymph nodes. Similar results were achieved for dogs treated with a combination of amphotericin B and ketoconazole, compared with dogs treated with itraconazole.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study should assist veterinarians with the recognition and management of blastomycosis in dogs. Blastomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for large-breed dogs that live close to a body of water in areas in which the disease is endemic or in dogs with a history of being transported to endemic areas that subsequently develop signs of pulmonary, ocular, lymphatic, or cutaneous disease. Treatment with itraconazole was as effective as treatment with a combination of amphotericin B and ketoconazole. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:658-664)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

to 9) at the time of CT; indication for performing CT; whether clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction were noted in the visit history or during the hospital visit for the CT; and echocardiographic findings within 90 days of CT (qualitative

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

tube, once). On physical examination, the horse had a rectal temperature of 38.1°C (100.5°F), heart rate of 56 beats/ min, and respiratory rate of 30 breaths/min. The horse was in good body condition (body condition score, 6/9) and was estimated to be

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association