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was delivered to each dog. Data and blood sample collection —Physiologic variables monitored for all dogs included heart rate, respiratory rate, and indirect blood pressure. Heart rate was measured by means of thoracic auscultation or palpation of a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

temperature and pulse and respiratory rates were recorded, and neurologic signs (limb and truncal ataxia and weakness) were graded on a scale of 0 to 4 according to the system of Mayhew. 25 Grade assignments were as follows: grade 0 = no ataxia or weakness

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-IODA group (71.0% [22/31 dogs]; Table 4 ). In the IODA group, 2 dogs died as a result of respiratory failure within 7 days after surgery. In the non-IODA group, 2 dogs died as a result of respiratory failure within 10 days after surgery; a third dog died of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

inspired oxygen of 0.4. Mechanical ventilation was performed to maintain an end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 ) of 35 to 45 mm Hg, a respiratory rate of 10 to 20 breaths/min, and a tidal volume of 10 to 15 mL/kg. Lactated Ringer

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, with the resultant plasma stored in polypropylene vials and frozen at −80°C for later determination of midazolam concentration. Heart rate was measured before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after midazolam administration. Respiratory rate, rectal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure), and other overt signs of illness (eg, vomiting or diarrhea), were recorded when identified. Pharmacokinetic analysis Serum from clinically normal, untreated dogs was used for preparation of standard and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

board-certified neurologist (RAP), except for 1 day on which the neurologic examinations were performed by a board-certified surgeon (AEF). Mentation, rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were monitored in each dog every 12 hours

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, respiratory rate and pressure wave forms, end-tidal CO 2 concentration, Spo 2 , and rectal temperature. The following data were collected at each incremental balloon volume: ICP, heart rate, directly measured MAP, ventilatory rate, end-tidal CO 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

method for the evaluation of autonomic modulation of the heart. 17,18 Frequency-domain analysis allows heart rate variability to be dissected into its specific frequency components. For example, the HF component is synchronous with respiratory sinus

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

interdigital skin of the pelvic limb and observing heart rate, respiratory rate, and the dog’s reaction. Deep nociception was determined by cross-clamping the metatarsals with hemostats (using either the nose or handles) and monitoring similar variables. A

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research