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were connected to a circle breathing system. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. During the procedure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were monitored continuously; rectal temperature was recorded every

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the reduction of oxygen to water. Under physiologic conditions, mitochondria have a basal production of superoxide anion that is correlated to a leak of electrons at the level of the respiratory chain complexes. Within the mitochondria, the principal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

8.37 Anestrus 24 8.03 Multiple breedings 19 6.35 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome 13 4.35 Unsoundness 10 3.34 Minor 59 19.73 Not recorded 1 0.33 Total 299 100

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

various clinical indications, including brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (n = 77), other respiratory disease (7), neoplastic disease (7), gastrointestinal disease (6), cardiac disease (2), and trauma (1). Eight-two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

1988 ; 20 : 331 – 334 . 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1988.tb01540.x 25. Hall LW , Aziz HA , Groenendyk J , et al. Electromyography of some respiratory muscles in the horse . Res Vet Sci 1991 ; 50 : 328 – 333 . 10.1016/0034-5288(91)90133-9 26

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Heart and respiratory rates and rectal temperature were constantly monitored. Lateromedial and dorsopalmar (or dorsoplantar) radiographic images were obtained of all limbs at locations immediately distal to the radius and tibia. Images were obtained by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

horses (5 Thoroughbreds and 1 Warmblood [mean ± SD weight, 493 ± 33 kg]) were used in the study. The horses were determined to be in good condition via physical examination, video endoscopic examination of the upper portion of the respiratory tract, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and ruptured aorta [8.8%]), gastrointestinal tract problems (eg, intestinal torsion and colitis [6.1%]), neurologic problems (eg, equine protozoal myeloencephalopathy and equine herpesvirus-1 [7%]), respiratory tract problems (eg

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-molecular-weight heparin to alleviate proteinuria by inhibiting respiratory syncytial virus infection . Nephrology (Carlton) 2008 ; 13 : 545 – 553 . 29 Benck U Haeckel S Clorius JH , et al. Proteinuria-lowering effect of heparin therapy in diabetic nephropathy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to intubation and every hour thereafter for attitude, heart rate, respiratory rate, capillary refill time, hoof temperature, digital pulses, and evidence of lameness consistent with Obel grade 1 laminitis. For horses in the control and 12-hour BWHE

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research