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Abstract

Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus to US swine producers.

Design—Economic analysis.

Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding herds and growing-pig populations were collected from a convenience sample of swine farms in the midwestern United States.

Procedure—Health and productivity variables of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence were then used to determine the annual economic impact of PRRS on US swine producers.

Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive health, an increase in deaths, and reductions in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic impact of these effects on US swine producers was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and $493.57 million in growing-pig populations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes a substantial financial burden on US swine producers and causes approximately $560.32 million in losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication, annual losses attributable to classical swine fever (hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at $364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively (adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful; thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into the future. Research to improve our understanding of ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The concept of preconditioning programs for beef calves at the farm or ranch of origin was first introduced in the mid 1960s. 1 The primary objective of pre conditioning programs is to reduce the incidence of respiratory tract disease in calves

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Seventy-three Colorado cow/calf operations were monitored for calf mortality from birth to weaning as part of their participation in the National Animal Health Monitoring System. Producer-observed causes of calf mortality, and the costs associated with these deaths were obtained. The overall calf mortality during the study was 4.5%, with a total associated cost of $237,478. The mean cost per calf death was $216, of which $208 was attributed to the potential value of the calf and an additional $8 was for veterinary, drug, producer's labor, and carcass disposal expenses. The most commonly reported causes of calf mortality were dystocia (17.5%), stillbirth (12.4%), hypothermia (12.2%), diarrhea (11.5%), and respiratory infections (7.6%). These 5 disease conditions accounted for > 60% of all calf deaths. A cause was not determined for 19.7% of the calf deaths. Beef producers and veterinarians have the potential to decrease calf mortality and increase profits in cow/calf operations by implementing management strategies and herd health programs designed to decrease the number of calf deaths caused by these disease conditions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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Summary

Four percent of the total cost of disease in 60 Tennessee cow-calf herds in 1987 to 1988 was attributable to veterinary services, and 2.3% was attributable to the purchase of drugs to treat sick animals. When producers spent money on therapeutic veterinary services, it was most often attributable to diseases of the reproductive system ($0.69/cow annually), especially dystocia ($0.51 /cow annually). When drugs were used therapeutically, the most was spent on products to treat respiratory tract disease ($0.37/cow annually). The cost of preventive veterinary services accounted for 8.8% of the total cost of preventive actions. Pregnancy examinations (considered here as a preventive action) was the most costly preventive service ($0.62/cow annually). The cost of drugs and biologicals used to prevent disease accounted for 69.4% of the total cost of preventive actions, with drugs to prevent intestinal and external parasites being the most costly ($7.79/cow annually). These figures are based on cow-calf herds randomly selected by use of a 2-stage, stratified plan. Herds were visited once a month for 1 year. Results of this study support other work that showed that beef producers perceive veterinarians as primary sources of information on diagnosis and treatment of sick animals and on reproduction/breeding, but less knowledgeable or cost effective in the areas of animal/herd management, feed nutrition, and agribusiness/economics.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To determine whether intravenous administration of 6% dextran 70 solution to young calves with severe diarrhea is cost effective.

Design—

Randomized, prospective, clinical trial.

Animals—

22 calves < 2 months old that were hospitalized for diarrhea and that did not have pneumonia.

Procedure—

All calves received antibiotics, were fed by use of an orogastic tube, were supplied with radiant heat, and were given crystalloids, IV, as deemed appropriate by an attending veterinarian. A group of 12 calves also received 500 ml of 6% dextran 70 solution, IV, over a 1-hour period as part of the initial treatment. Data were collected to determine whether early treatment with 6% dextran 70 solution resulted in a similar end cost for treatment because of a decrease in the volume of fluids administered IV, a decrease in antibiotic usage, a decrease in the amount of time hospitalized, or a decrease in mortality.

Results—

Capillary refill times, heart rates, respiratory rates, and rectal temperatures; and scores for dehydration, mucous membrane color, lung sounds, mental status, and suckling response were not different between the 2 groups of calves at admission. Differences were not detected in client charges or in hospitalized time (6% dextran 70 group, $89.68 ± 11.05 and 36 ± 3 hours; control group $88.02 ± 4.93 and 36 ± 4 hours), but those charges did not include costs for the 6% dextran 70 solution.

Clinical Implications—

Use of 6% dextran 70 solution as part of the resuscitation of most young calves with diarrhea requiring hospitalization is not likely to be cost effective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1714–1715)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Eighty-six cow-calf operations involved in the Colorado National Animal Health Monitoring System were monitored for a 12-month period, and data were collected on the incidence, prevention, and costs of disease. The costs of veterinary services and vaccines/drugs used in the treatment and prevention of disease conditions in these beef herds were determined and expressed on a per cow basis.

Beef producers in this study spent an average of $2.04 ($0 to $29.88) per cow annually on veterinary services for treatment of disease conditions. The cost of veterinary services was a relatively small percentage (5.4%) of the total mean cost of disease incidence. The reproductive tract disease class was the most costly class in terms of veterinary services for disease treatment ($0.99/cow). Dystocia was the disease condition with the largest veterinary treatment cost.

The total mean annual cost of drugs used in the treatment of disease conditions was $1.22/cow. The enteric, miscellaneous, and respiratory tract disease classes had similar mean drug costs for disease treatment and ranged from $0.31 to $0.39/cow.

The total mean annual cost of veterinary services for administration of preventive measures in these herds was $1.85/cow ($0 to $12.03). Pregnancy examination, breeding soundness examination in bulls, brucellosis vaccination, pulmonary arterial pressure test, and campylobacteriosis vaccination accounted for over 90% of the money spent for preventive veterinary services.

Approximately 60% of the total mean annual disease prevention cost was attributed to the purchase of vaccines/drugs ($6.59/cow). More money was spent by these beef producers on vaccines/drugs to prevent miscellaneous disease conditions than for other disease classes because of the cost of drugs used to prevent general disease of parasitism and infestation with lice, grubs, or flies. Diarrhea of unknown cause had the highest mean cost ($1.16/cow) for vaccines/drugs among individual disease conditions.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-vaccinated calves) consisted of calves that were not in a certified health program but that had been vaccinated against ≥ 1 respiratory tract virus (ie, IBR, PI3, BVDV, and BRSV) before shipment from the farm or ranch of origin. The second group (non

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association