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occasionally to the atrioventricular node. 2 This causes alteration of the depolarization pathways through the atria and resultant changes in P-wave morphology. 2 A wandering pacemaker is often evident with respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and both phenomena are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/min. Auscultation revealed no audible murmurs or arrhythmias; respiratory rate was 44 breaths/min, and lung sounds were considered normal. The cat's right carpus and digits were contracted and held in flexion, causing it to bear most of its weight on the right elbow

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-S interval, which was evident in the ECG recordings obtained from the parrot. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with a similar trace pattern; the heart rate slows with exhalation and accelerates with inhalation. 9,10 Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

( Figure 1 ). At the time of this initial recording, the dog's rectal temperature was 33.8°C (92.84°F). In the ECG traces, the rhythm was regularly irregular and related to respiratory phases. The heart rate markedly increased during deep inspiration (to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

examination revealed tachypnea with a restrictive respiratory pattern, increased bronchovesicular pulmonary sounds, muffled heart sounds on the left side, and estimated 7% dehydration. After receiving 200 mL of fluids SC, the cat was referred to the Kansas

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

recumbent, obtunded, tachypneic, and clinically overhydrated. Rectal temperature was 39°C (102.0°F), heart rate was 150 beats/min, and respiratory rate was 80 breaths/min. Initial clinicopathologic analyses revealed the following abnormalities: BUN

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was quiet, alert, and responsive. Rectal temperature was 38.7 °C; heart rate was 140 beats/min. The dog was panting with a noticeable expiratory push. Stenotic nares, stertorous breathing, and increased referred upper respiratory noise were also noted

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

monitoring revealed respiratory sinus arrhythmia with a mean heart rate of 85 beats/min and frequent episodes of isolated second-degree atrioventricular block (AVB). On the basis of the dog's history and echocardiographic findings, Holter monitoring for a 24

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

body condition (weight, 7.8 kg; body condition score, 6/9), pink mucous membranes, and normal capillary refill time (< 1 second). The dog was bright, alert, and responsive. Respiratory rate was 30 breaths/min, and rectal temperature was 38.5 °C. Cardiac

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

respiratory effort with mildly increased bronchovesicular lung sounds in all fields. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentration was markedly high (12.75 ng/mL; reference range, 0.03 to 0.11 ng/mL), suggestive of recent or ongoing myocardial damage

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association