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increases in the rates of new-onset illness and the severity of various symptoms of respiratory tract disease among individuals exposed to the WTC site and its immediate vicinity. Given the important role that working dogs played in the response and relief

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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presented in these briefings included inhalation, absorption, injection, or ingestion of or contact with hazardous substances; structural instability; potential exposure to explosives; and weather concerns. Respiratory hazards included carcinogenic woodland

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To determine characteristics, variables associated with deployment morbidity, and injuries and illnesses of search-and-rescue dogs associated with the Sept 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

Design—Historical cohort study.

Animals—96 dogs.

Procedure—Data collected included previous medical or surgical history, physical attributes of dogs, type and number of years of training, site of deployment, shift and hours worked, and number of days deployed. Combined morbidity was defined as 1 or more abnormalities of body systems, including traumatic injuries.

Results—Handlers of 96 of the 212 dogs responded to the surveys. Fifty-nine dogs were deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, 10 by police forces, and 27 as members of other search-and-rescue teams. Sixty-five dogs (incidence rate, 17 events/1,000 dog search hours) had combined morbidity during deployment. System-specific morbidity rates included gastrointestinal tract signs (5 events/1,000 dog search hours), cuts and abrasions mostly on the feet (5 events/1,000 dog search hours), fatigue (6 events/1,000 dog search hours), change in appetite (6 events/1,000 dogs search hours), dehydration (5 events/1,000 dog search hours), respiratory tract problems (2 events/1,000 dog search hours), heat exhaustion (2 events/1,000 dog search hours), and orthopedic or back problems (2 events/1,000 dog search hours). Dogs deployed to the World Trade Center were 6.6 times more likely to have combined morbidity, compared with dogs at the Pentagon.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injury and illnesses occurred in most dogs and affected several organ systems, but all were minor. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:868–873)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

pulmonary system is the organ system most commonly affected. They are gases that combine with moisture in the respiratory tract to form strong acids or bases, causing damage that may result in life-threatening pulmonary edema. Clinical signs may not be

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, which are typically dictated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards. Use of some components of PPE, especially respiratory protection, requires regular training, certification, and recertification. People and equipment that leave the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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.56 events/1,000 h worked. In total, there were 12.6 events/1,000 h worked. None of the dogs was reported to have developed heat exhaustion or signs of heat stress (core body temperature ≥ 40.0°C [104°F], high heart and respiratory rates, excessive panting

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

) . Common workplace health and safety hazards include confined spaces, extreme heat and cold, handling heavy equipment, musculoskeletal and respiratory hazards, electrocution, and heat stress and injury. Working in disaster zones is physically and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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, especially in the axillary and groin areas, and additionally served as protection from sharp debris. None of the handlers reported observing the vests interfere with their dogs’ ability to search among the debris. Respiratory abnormalities and urinary tract

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

example, a study 1 of injuries and illnesses sustained by working dogs at the Oklahoma City bombing site found that > 20% of the dogs fell ill, with clinical signs ranging from respiratory tract irritation as a result of exposure to cement lime to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

quarantine facility at the shelter, no infectious disease outbreaks or nosocomial infections were observed, even though several horses developed transient colitis, fever, and upper respiratory tract disease. The health and safety of Equine Response Shelter

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association