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field trial exercise in dogs in a wider range of ambient temperatures. In particular, the intent was to determine whether dogs participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

a standard treatment in calves with acidosis and is aimed at restoration of the bicarbonate concentration, which is decreased in animals with acidosis. 3,18 , b,n Immediately after birth, calves may have varying degrees of metabolic or respiratory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish concentration of hyaluronate (HA) in tracheal lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Animals and Samples

Tracheal lavage fluid samples (n = 42) from 18 horses, 11 with COPD, and 7 control horses.

Procedure

Clinical examination of the respiratory tract, tracheal lavage, and blood sample collection were performed on horses without clinical signs of respiratory tract disease and horses with clinical signs of COPD. In some horses, 1 to 5 repeated examinations were performed at 1-week intervals. Tracheal lavage fluid samples were analyzed for cell numbers, and urea concentration (made in parallel with serum samples to evaluate sample dilution effect); HA was determined by radiometric assay.

Results

Mean (± SEM) HA concentration in tracheal lavage fluid samples was significantly (P = 0.005) higher in horses with COPD (1,880 [± 309] μg/L), compared with that in control horses (256 [± 72] μg/L). The increase in HA concentration in tracheal lavage fluid of COPD-affected horses was verified by repeated sample collection and analysis.

Conclusions

In horses with chronic respiratory tract inflammation such as COPD, tracheal lavage fluid HA concentration is about 7 times higher than reference values. High HA concentration in the tracheal or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may reflect pathophysiologic changes in connective tissue around bronchi and bronchioli, leading to continuous increased production of HA in horses with advanced forms of COPD.

Clinical Relevance

Determination of tracheal lavage fluid HA concentration may be used as a marker of chronic inflammatory changes in the COPD-affected lung. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:729–732)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Adverse reactions to oral administration of milbemycin oxime were investigated in heartworm (hw)-free and hw-infected dogs given either the minimal hw prophylactic dose (0.25 mg/kg of body weight) or the hookworm anthelmintic dose (0.5 mg/kg). In 12 hw-free control dogs treated with lactose excipient (100 mg/kg), abnormal signs were not observed. There were no differences between the 2 doses in prevalence of clinical signs of disease and laboratory test results. In 60 hw-free dogs (50 dogs administered the low dose, and 10 dogs given the high dose) and 46 nonmicrofilaremic hw-infected dogs (35 dogs administered the low dose, and 11 dogs given the high dose), only a transient and slight paleness of the visible mucous membranes, intestinal hyperperistalsis, or both were observed in some dogs. In 77 microfilaremic (mf) dogs (41 dogs administered the low dose, and 36 dogs given the high dose), weakness or loss of appetite was observed in 13 dogs (16.9%). Paleness of the visible mucous membranes was observed in 16 dogs (20.8%), intestinal hyperperistalsis was observed in 27 dogs (35.1%), and respiratory signs, such as mild labored respiration, were observed in 13 dogs (16.9%). Dullness of heart sounds was noticed in 4 dogs (5.2%). In 12 (9 dogs administered the low dose, and 3 dogs given the high dose) of 89 mf dogs (13.5%), adult heartworms migrated from the pulmonary arteries to the right atrium, causing signs of caval syndrome, including heart murmurs, jugular pulsations, and weakness.

C and neutrophil counts increased slightly at 3 hours. Serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatasIn hw-free dogs, rectal temperature tended to decrease gradually, and heart and respiratory rates were transiently decreased. Mean blood pressure, rbc count, serum total protein concentration, serum osmolality, and serum sodium (Na) and potassium (K) concentrations decreased 3 or 6 hours after administration. The total WBe, and lactate dehydrogenase activities did not change significantly. In hw-infected, nonmicrofilaremic dogs, trends in laboratory changes were almost the same as those in hw-free dogs.

In mf dogs, circulating microfilaria count decreased starting at 6 hours after treatment. Heart rate, rbc count, and serum total protein concentration decreased transiently, similar to values in hw-free dogs. Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and serum enzyme activities increased, and neutrophil and eosinophil counts, serum osmolality, and serum Na and K concentrations decreased. Changes in test results for dogs with hw migration were almost the same as those in mf hw-infected dogs.

Heartworm-free and nonmicrofilaremic hw-infected dogs did not have clinically relevant problems after treatment with milbemycin oxime. Administration of milbemycin oxime does not involve risks for these dogs. However, reactions in mf dogs appear to be related to the death of microfilariae, and caution must be used when these dogs are treated with this compound.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. Initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and Baermann fecal flotation. In 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secretions from the lavaged lung segment were taken for culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasma. Bronchial lavage fluid (5 sequential 10-ml aliquots of normal saline solution) was pooled and filtered with cotton gauze. The unspun sample was used for determination of a total nucleated cell count. Lavage fluid was cytocentrifuged and 500 cells/slide were scored for determination of the cellular differential. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase and concentrations of total protein and IgG within the supernatant were measured, and assays were performed to detect the presence of IgA and IgM. Complete histologic evaluation of the lavaged lung of each of 6 random-source cats was performed after differential cell counting revealed 18% eosinophils within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from this group.

Alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells encountered; however, a quarter of all cells recovered were eosinophils. A significant relationship was not found between the abundance of eosinophils in the lavage fluid, and either isolation of aerobic bacteria, high total nucleated cell counts, total protein concentrations, or activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Histologic evaluation of the lungs of 5 of 6 random-source cats revealed normal lungs in 2 cats, and minimal abnormal change in 3 others. Evaluation of the lungs from 1 random source cat revealed acute, mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis. We conclude that large numbers of eosinophils may be retrieved from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

suggest any deleterious effect of this position. However, there are reasons to believe that training horses in a flexed head and neck position could have an adverse effect on upper airway function because dynamic obstructions of the upper respiratory tract

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

outcome in critically ill dogs. The SPI2 predicts survival outcome in critically ill dogs through multivariate regression of MAP, respiratory rate, creatinine concentration, albumin concentration, age, PCV, and reason for admission (medical vs surgical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

– 300 . 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb00024.x 24. Cooper AR Morris S . Haemoglobin function and respiratory status of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni , in response to lowered salinity . J Comp Physiol 2004 ; 174 : 223 – 236

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

response. Following the anesthetic injection, each pig was monitored closely during the collection procedure. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and depth of sedation were monitored at least every 10 minutes while the pig was anesthetized and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

PTH secretion in acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004 ; 286 : E780 – E785 . 10.1152/ajpendo.00473.2003 8. Lopez I Aguilera-Tejero E Felsenfeld AJ , Direct effect of acute metabolic and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research