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, tissue oxygen saturation (measured transcutaneously), heart rate, and blood pressure (measured with an oscillometric device) were monitored throughout the study period. To evaluate the possible effect of respiratory variation on the variables of interest

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and lactate activity. Respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressures (ET CO 2 and ET ISO ) were also measured. From these variables, the following variables were calculated: CI, SVI, SVR, D O 2 , ER O 2 , oxygen consumption

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, respiratory tract disease, weakness, or syncope may be present. 1,2 In many cases, the historical findings suggest that atrial fibrillation was present for several weeks or even months before horses were evaluated for cardioversion. It has been suggested that

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

maintained constant within the desired range. However, the second study, 5 the ETCO 2 concentration was maintained constant for only the first 30 minutes of anesthesia; subsequently, the respiratory rate was kept constant but with no attempt to correct the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and respiratory monitoring is typically limited. 2 Nevertheless, anesthetic monitoring is desirable because administration of anesthetic drugs frequently results in cardiopulmonary instability. 3 An ideal monitoring method for field settings would be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, hypotension, and low urine output). 12 Fluid therapy must be stopped if the dog develops any signs of fluid overload, such as an increase in respiratory rate and effort, peripheral or pulmonary edema, and weight gain. 12 However, such signs may be lagging

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. 31–33 Dysfunction of complexes III and V induced by ventricular pacing in dogs has been observed by others. 34 In addition, a study of respiratory complexes in Doberman Pinschers with naturally occurring DCM found a reduction of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In individuals that are anesthetized and mechanically ventilated, pulse pressure changes during the respiratory cycle reflect beat-to-beat variations in cardiac stroke volume caused by mechanical ventilation. Pulse pressure variation is a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

is radiation free, can be performed bedside in a few minutes, and can be used for the diagnosis of lung and thoracic diseases in real time. In human medicine, LUS can be used to rapidly diagnose the underlying cause of acute respiratory failure, such

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

people, but cumulative mitochondrial damage with age may predispose to acquired disease in high-energy tissues such as the heart. These mitochondrial deletions result in impaired respiratory chain function, which leads to formation of oxygen-free radicals

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research