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, 22, 24, and 48 hours after injection of the assigned treatment. Each evaluation included assessment of the horse's general appearance, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Lameness was also assessed with the horse walking on a hard

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

monitored by direct observation; measurement of body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxyhemoglobin saturation; and assessment of an ECG, rhythm and quality of an arterial pulse, capillary refill time, and mucous membrane color. The forelimb

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Osteoarthritis is a major source of debilitating pain, economic cost, and reduced athletic performance in horses. 1–3 In horses, degenerative joint disease is a more common problem than acute traumatic injuries or respiratory tract diseases and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and 125 mg of amikacin intra-articularly on study days 14, 21, and 28. Assessment of clinical outcomes —Animal care personnel assessed horses daily for comfort, movement, and respiratory character. Clinical examinations of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

apparent comfort, movement, and respiratory character. Clinical examinations of both forelimbs were performed weekly from day 0 (baseline; before surgery) throughout the study period. Lameness was graded on a standardized 0 to 5 scale with the horse

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg) was administered SC if signs consistent with excessive postoperative pain (eg, excess vocalization, signs of pain elicited during manipulation of the operated limb, or high heart or respiratory rates) were evident, as determined by a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-02-0021 16. Falchuk KH , Goetzl EJ , Kulka JP . Respiratory gases of synovial fluids. An approach to synovial tissue circulatory-metabolic imbalance in rheumatoid arthritis . Am J Med 1970 ; 49 : 223 – 231 . 17. Mathy-Hartert M , Hogge L

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

rate, and respiratory rate that were within the respective reference ranges. Gentamicin concentrations in synovial fluid and serum and pharmacokinetic analysis —Peak gentamicin concentration in synovial fluid obtained from joints implanted with the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treatments was commenced at day 1. All horses were monitored daily for general health, including subjective assessment of fecal consistency and measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature. Body mass (± 0.5 kg) was recorded weekly by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

performed before (baseline) and after surgery twice daily until termination of the study. Variables included rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, gastrointestinal sounds, and digital pulses. After surgery, lameness evaluation at a walk (0 = no

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research