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foal to allow acclimatization to experimental conditions. After the period of acclimatization, prerestraint (baseline) heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature measurements (determined 3 times every 5 minutes except for rectal temperature

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. These observations agree with those of another study 5 in which investigators conducted a similar study of the use of a PCB to euthanize 10 anesthetized sheep. In that study, 5 6 sheep received respiratory assistance, and 4 did not. Respiration ceased

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Euthanasia is the humane termination of an animal's life. According to the AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, methods of euthanasia must cause rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac or respiratory arrest and death and must

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

other reasons. Methods of euthanasia must cause rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac or respiratory arrest and death and minimize pain, distress, and anxiety prior to loss of consciousness. 4 Slaughter is killing animals for the purpose of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Between days -10 and -6, horses were allowed to acclimate to the study conditions. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, and digital pulses were evaluated once daily throughout the study, Figure 1— Photograph of a Tennessee Walking Horse

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

birds were monitored with a stethoscope and a Doppler ultrasonic device placed on the brachial artery, and respiratory rates were determined via visual observation. Following induction of anesthesia, quail were placed in right lateral recumbency with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cause loss of consciousness and sufficient brain damage that leads to death, the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem (comprising the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, which are responsible for life functions such as cardiac and respiratory activity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

therapy in bovine respiratory disease . Vet J 1997 ; 154 : 233 – 241 . 10.1016/S1090-0233(97)80028-7 24. Stilwell G Capitão E Nunes T . Effects of three different methods of dehorning on cortisol levels and behaviour of calves, in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pain (score = 1). A clinical examination (including general well-being, respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature, color of oral mucosa, capillary refill time, skin turgor, and intestinal peristalsis) and the secondary outcome variables skin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

prior to study commencement. On arrival at our facility, the calves received a single dose of a 7-way clostridial vaccine b (administered SC), a modified-live vaccine against viral respiratory disease c (administered IM), and a single injection of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research