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norepinephrine reuptake, thus enhancing inhibitory effects on pain transmission pathways in the spinal cord. 2,3 Tramadol has rarely been associated with respiratory or cardiovascular depression in humans, even in large doses, and this set it apart from other

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

onset and short duration of action, rapid redistribution, and short elimination half-life. 3 Alfaxalone also produces dose-dependent depression of the respiratory system in cats, denoted by a decrease in V e and Pa o 2 . 4,5 After healthy cats are

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Respiratory depression is a common complication in animals undergoing general anesthesia and is a particular concern in horses because atelectasis formation in their dependent lungs may lead to development of hypercapnia, hypoxemia, and acid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

assessments were performed prior to perineural anesthesia (baseline) and at 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postinjection. For each horse, rectal temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate were recorded. Limb circumference of the treated forelimb was measured in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

prior to the start of the study, with heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature within reference limits. Horses were housed in box stalls for the duration of the study. The study consisted of a blocked design controlling for limb (left vs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research