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Cooling and freezing as methods for anesthetizing or euthanizing amphibians and reptiles have been discussed since at least the late 1980s. 1 Historically, most authors have recommended against the use of these practices 1–7 because of the lack

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and unacceptable drug-based methods for euthanasia of mammals. 1 In contrast, developing similar recommendations for ectothermic vertebrates (ie, fish, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles) poses great challenges. Most importantly, the physiologic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Introduction In just 48 years, between 1970 and 2018, the world lost an estimated 69% of its total mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. 1 One million additional species face extinction in the coming decades if humanity’s impact on

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

survival in environments with normal oxygen conditions. 15 Hosts Species affected Melioidosis has been reported in humans and a variety of other animals, including nonhuman primates, kangaroo, deer, buffalo, camel, rat, parrot, reptiles, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

average value of the “corresponding nearest mainland population, yielding a relative insular body size.” By 2011, Meiri et al 29 had assembled a large database of body masses, with skull and dental measurements among mammals, birds, and reptiles

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research