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to reptiles is associated with outcomes ranging from gastrointestinal illness to sepsis, shock, and death, which has led to recommendations and legislation to reduce the risk of exposure or infection. 14,15 Much research has already been conducted

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reptiles. 26 However, actual reports of these clinical signs coinciding with cardiovascular disease in reptiles are rare. 27 , 28 Some reptilian species, namely Iguana spp, have a large retrobulbar orbital sinus. 26 , 29 Therefore diseases that cause

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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Abstract

Objective—To determine anesthetic techniques and the drugs used to provide anesthesia and analgesia to reptiles.

Design—Mail-out questionnaire.

Sample Population—367 members of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.

Procedure—1,091 members listed in the 2002 directory of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding anesthesia and analgesia.

Results—367 of 1,091 (33.6%) individuals completed the questionnaire; 88.8% used inhalants (particularly isoflurane) for anesthesia, and ketamine, propofol, and butorphanol were the most commonly used injectable agents. Intubation, fluids, and having a dedicated anesthetist were most commonly used for patient support, and pulse oximetry and Doppler ultrasonography were most commonly used for monitoring. Respiratory depression, difficulty monitoring anesthetic depth, prolonged recovery, and hypothermia were the most frequent complications. Nearly all respondents believed that reptiles feel pain, but analgesics were used infrequently for many reasons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Providing anesthesia in reptiles is difficult, especially regarding anesthetic depth and vital parameters, and methods of support are used less frequently than in domestic species. Provision of analgesia is uncommon. Research regarding pain and its assessment, response to analgesics, and drug pharmacokinetics is needed. Dissemination of this information to practitioners needs to be improved for enhancement of the standard of care for reptiles. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:547–552)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an inactivated culture of a microcin-producing avian Escherichia coli was capable of killing Salmonella isolates from reptiles in an in vitro test system.

Sample Population—57 Salmonella isolate from reptiles.

Procedure—A wild-type avian E coli electrotransformed with a plasmid coding for the production of microcin 24 was tested in an in vitro microassay system for its ability to kill 57 Salmonella spp isolated from reptiles. The reptile population included snakes, iguana, frilled lizards, turtles, other lizards, and unspecified reptiles.

Results—44 of the Salmonella isolates were inhibited strongly, compared with the in vitro assay controls; 12 had weak inhibition, and 1 was not inhibited by the microcin-producing E coli. Thirteen of the 57 isolates had resistance to at least 1 antibiotic, primarily streptomycin. There were 9 O serogroups identified in the 57 isolates, with serogroup H being the most prevalent (18 to 57).

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Antibiotics are not recommended to eliminate Salmonella organisms from reptiles because of the development of antibiotic resistance. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the use of microcin-producing bacteria will be effective in controlling Salmonella infections in companion reptiles. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1399–1401)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Cooling and freezing as methods for anesthetizing or euthanizing amphibians and reptiles have been discussed since at least the late 1980s. 1 Historically, most authors have recommended against the use of these practices 1–7 because of the lack

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and unacceptable drug-based methods for euthanasia of mammals. 1 In contrast, developing similar recommendations for ectothermic vertebrates (ie, fish, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles) poses great challenges. Most importantly, the physiologic

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Veterinarians should be aware of specific aspects regarding ophthalmic examination of reptiles because the ophthalmic anatomy and physiology of most reptiles differ from those of mammals. Many reptilian species have small globes and other anatomic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reptile species such as snakes 5 and lizards, 6–8 it is often of restricted value for use on small chelonians. 9,10 Visual examination of internal structures such as the gastrointestinal tract, urogenital tract (including the testes, ovaries, follicles

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association