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additive antimicrobials c (apramycin, bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, florfenicol, hygromycin, lincomycin, neomycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, tetracycline, tiamulin, tylosin, and virginiamycin); antimicrobial-free saline

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

accordance with the clinical signs, horses were administered a penicillin-streptomycin combination j approved for use in horses in Japan (penicillin [8,000 U/kg] and streptomycin [10 mg/kg], IM, q 24 h) or cephalothin sodium k (20 mg/kg, IV, q 6 h) as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of antimicrobials (ie, number of distinct classes of antimicrobials or types of formulations) dispensed per patient (ie, distribution of use). For example, if penicillin and gentamicin (2 distinct antimicrobial classes) were dispensed for a given

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Time-dependent antimicrobials such as penicillins and cephalosporins are most effective when the plasma drug concentration is maintained above the pathogen MIC for most of the interdose interval. 1,2 Higher concentrations (higher than approx 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

platelet function is not affected by penicillins or metronidazole. Although secondary hemostasis is not commonly affected by antimicrobials, the cephalosporins appear to cause dysfunction in hemostasis by inducing hypoprothrombinemia. 16,17 Investigators

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.6 11.0 10.5 11.0 12.8 Aminoglycosides 7.9 4.1 3.7 3.4 2.8 3.3 3.2 4.5 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.4 3.2 2.4 β-lactamase sensitive-type penicillins 4.5 3.5 3.3 2.7 4.1 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

effective in rabbits require administration once to multiple times a day to be effective. 3 A commonly used injectable antimicrobial for the treatment of abscesses in rabbits is penicillin G procaine, for which an 8-hour IM dosing frequency is recommended

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

resistance was defined as resistance to 2 or more drug classes (the class of β lactams included 3 subgroups: penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems [ie, first, second, and third generations]). For each antimicrobial class, MIC ranges were determined by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

penicillin with a narrow spectrum of activity including efficacy against gram-positive bacteria, select gram-negative bacteria, and select anaerobic bacteria. Sulbactam is a β-lactamase inhibitor, which extends the spectrum of ampicillin to include β

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Dap, Ery, F, Gen, L, Lzd, P, S, Syn, T, Tylt, V 0.27 1 14 Bac, C, Dap, Ery, F, Kan, L, Lzd, P, S, Syn, T, Tylt, V 0.27 5 Cip = Ciprofloxacin. Lzd = Linezolid. P = Penicillin. V = Vanco-mycin. See Tables 2 and 4 for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research