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Summary

Analogues of a melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-msh) have been documented to be effective in inducing integumental melanogenesis in several species. These melanotropin analogues are more potent than the natural hormone and have prolonged biological activity, without apparent teratogenic or other toxic effects, at least in rodents. In a pilot study, a cyclic α-msh analogue, Ac-[Nle 4 , Asp 5 , D _ -Phe 7 , Lys 10 ] α-msh 4-10-NH2, was administered sc to a dog at a dose of 1 mg of analogue in 1 ml of 0.9 % NaCl for 3 weeks, without noticeable adverse effects. There was gradual and extensive darkening of the coat, which originally was predominantly tan, with tips of black. Initially, the darkening involved face and extremities, then gradually expanded to include the trunk and tail hair. Visual pigmentation peaked approximately 2 months after injections were completed. As new hair growth continued subsequent to the injections, the original tan color appeared at the proximal end of the hair shaft, leaving a dark terminal band on all affected hairs. These observations clearly indicated that follicular melanogenesis can be induced in dogs by treatment with a melanotropic peptide.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A bolus dose of methimazole (mmi) was administered iv over 1 minute to 5 healthy adult dogs at a dosage (40 mg/kg of body weight) known to impart protection against cisplatin-induced renal disease. Blood and urine samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected over a 24-hour period. Physical examination, CBC, determination of serum thyroid hormone concentrations, and serum biochemistry analysis were performed over a 10-day period to evaluate short-term toxicoses. At this dosage, mmi appears to be safe and well tolerated in dogs; only 1 of the 5 dogs had mild and transient increases in serum activity of hepatic enzymes. In addition, mmi did not alter serum thyroid hormone concentrations. Half-life of 8.82 hours and mean residence time of 12.18 hours were determined for mmi. Renal clearance of native mmi, along with sulfate and glucuronide conjugates, represented only 20 % of total systemic clearance. Results of this study provide further information concerning clinical use of mmi in dogs and may contribute to better understanding of the mechanism of mmi protection against chemically induced nephrotoxicosis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A study was undertaken to determine the toxic effects of cisplatin, an antineoplastic agent, when administered immediately after a 1-hour saline diuresis. Four treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2 of body surface, q 3 wk) were administered iv to 6 healthy dogs over a 20-minute period after 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution was administered iv for 1 hour at a volume of 132 ml (kg)0.75. Each dog vomited at least once within 8 hours after each treatment was administered. Clinical status, body weight, and food consumption were normal throughout the 12-week study for 5 of the 6 dogs. The sixth dog developed acute renal failure and became acutely blind and deaf within 3 days after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Serum electrolyte, creatinine, and urea nitrogen values remained within established normal limits in all dogs immediately prior to each treatment, and in 5 of 6 dogs evaluated 3 weeks after the final treatment. The serum creatinine value (3.3 mg/dl) obtained from the Beagle euthanatized 2 weeks after the fourth treatment was above established normal values. Despite normalcy for all but 1 of the creatinine values, serum creatinine concentration obtained 3 weeks after the final treatment with cisplatin was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than pretreatment values. When compared with data from all other evaluation periods, significant decreases in glomerular filtration rate, as determined by exogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) and endogenous (P ≤ 0.0001) creatinine clearance testing, were identified 3 weeks after the fourth treatment with cisplatin. Neutrophil counts decreased significantly below pretreatment values at the third (P = 0.009), fourth (P < 0.0001), and fifth (P < 0.0001) evaluation period. We concluded that cisplatin can be administered with biochemical evidence, but not necessarily clinical evidence, that renal dysfunction may develop after 4 treatments with cisplatin (70 mg/m2, iv) are administered to dogs, using a 1-hour diuresis protocol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the authors according to the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group criteria for adverse events. 28 Dogs 1 and 3 received carboplatin at 300 mg/m 2 , IV. Dog 2 was administered carboplatin at 280 mg/m 2 because of a grade III thrombocytopenia 28 that

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the 2011 consensus document from the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. 22 Grade 1 AEs consist of mild clinical signs not requiring intervention; grade 2 AEs consist of moderate signs requiring noninvasive intervention that only moderately limits

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

al. Clinical pharmacokinetics of metformin . Clin Pharmacokinet 2011 ; 50 : 81 – 98 . 10.2165/11534750-000000000-00000 2. Pollak M . Potential applications for biguanides in oncology . J Clin Invest 2013 ; 123 : 3693 – 3700 . 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Guidelines . Available at: www.ccac.ca/en/standards/guidelines . Accessed Jun 8, 2020. 13. Veterinary cooperative oncology group – common terminology criteria for adverse events (VCOG-CTCAE) following chemotherapy or biological antineoplastic therapy in

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research