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abnormalities on ECG or echocardiography that do not have overt clinical signs. This phase is often referred to as occult disease. The third phase includes dogs with ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as clinical signs such as heart failure

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

this breed is an inherited, slowly progressive, primary myocardial disease with a unique disease progression that typically has a late onset. 1,4–8 The rate of progression of occult DCM to overt DCM is generally slow, but progression rapidly increases

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

myocardium. 1–4 Affected dogs may have syncope or signs associated with congestive heart failure. However, many dogs die of sudden cardiac death without ever having any clinical signs. Screening for the occult form of the disease may be performed with a 24

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentration was superior to measurement of plasma ANP concentration for detection of occult CM. Nevertheless, a correlation between tissue ANP concentration and the thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall in diastole has been identified, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 10.1093/ajcn/57.2.207 16. Calvert CA Hall G Jacobs G , et al . Clinical and pathological findings in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy that died suddenly or developed congestive heart failure: 54 cases (1984–1991) . J Am Vet

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

al. Recommendations for standards in transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography in the dog and cat . J Vet Intern Med 1993 ; 7 : 247 – 252 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1993.tb01015.x 20. O'Grady MR Horne R . Occult dilated cardiomyopathy in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ventricular ectopy (n = 1), occult renal dysfunction (2), and equivocal or mild structural heart disease (3). All enrolled cats successfully completed the drug trial, and no cats were reported to have clinically important adverse effects (eg, signs of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; 22 : 96 – 105 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.0024.x 46. Oyama MA , Sisson DD , Solter PF . Prospective screening for occult cardiomyopathy in dogs by measurement of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, hypoxemia, and preexisting occult cardiac disease) could not be determined. Future research should evaluate the potential effects of sex and individual anesthesia drugs on the duration of increased circulating plasma cTnI concentration after anesthesia in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

profound hypoperfusion, occult hypoperfusion may go undetected in some patients, leading to poor clinical outcomes. 4,5 Lactate concentration and base deficit are commonly used in intensive care units to identify hypoperfusion in critically ill and injured

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research