Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 36 items for :

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

, insufficient transport of immunologic components across the neonatal intestine, characterized by low serum concentrations of maternal IgG in the calf after suckling, is also detrimental. 2 Producers routinely feed frozen colostrum collected from cows on their

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

It is well-known that perinatal infections and PAS are the major causes of morbidity among equine neonates. An in-depth understanding of the pathophysiology of these diseases could help generate new diagnostic and prognostic tools that would have

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Serum interleukin-6 (il-6) concentration was measured in 11 colostrum-fed (cf) and 8 colostrum-deprived (cd) 2- to 3-day-old foals after foals were infused with lipopolysaccharide (lps; Escherichia coli O55:B5 endotoxin, 0.5 µ.g/kg of body weight in sterile saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum il-6 concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro proliferative bioassay, using the IL-6 dependent B.13.29 clone 9 cells. Interleukin-6 concentration increased in all lps-infused foals, and geometric mean serum il- 6 concentration was significantly higher in cf than cd foals 30 and 90 minutes after infusion. Both lps- infused groups had multiple spikes of mean il-6 concentration that peaked at 120 minutes in cf foals and 150 minutes in cd foals. Results indicated that il-6 is produced in neonatal foals in response to lps infusion. Furthermore, colostrum deprivation resulted in longer times to peak mean serum il-6 concentration and tended to reduce serum il-6 concentration in neonatal foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Logistic regression was used to develop models predicting preweaning survival in 334 neonatal swine. Measured risk factors included birth weight, litter size (live born), dam parity, serum IgG concentration, serum elisa titers recognizing common gram-negative core antigens, and serum concentrations of the third component of complement. Larger birth weights were associated with increased probability of preweaning survival. The highest mortality was observed in litters with more than 12 pigs. Pigs with serum concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in the lowest stratum, < 20% adult pooled C3 standard (APC3), had reduced mortality, compared with high (> 38% APC3) and middle (20 to 38% APC3) groups. Associations between all other variables, including total serum IgG concentration and preweaning survival were not significant. Few pigs had hypogammaglobulinemia, < 3% of the study population had serum IgG concentrations < 1 g/dl. Of all measured variables, only birth weight and dam parity were significant predictors of preweaning gain. Larger pigs and pigs born to third or greater parity dams had more preweaning gain than other pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fifty-four neonatal pigs were allotted to 4 groups and reared in an electrically controlled automatic feeding device (autosow). Each group was reared on a different pool of bovine colostrum: fresh, stored 1 month, stored 6 months, and stored 8 years. Bovine and porcine immunoglobulins in the sera of these pigs, and in a group of conventionally reared pigs, were measured periodically during the first 42 days after birth. The maximal concentration of absorbed bovine immunoglobulin was reached between 12 and 18 hours and equaled or exceeded the amount of porcine immunoglobulin absorbed by the conventionally reared pigs. Large differences in the concentrations of the bovine immunoglobulin isotypes among the various pools of colostrum were positively correlated with concentration of these isotypes in the sera of the neonatal pigs fed these pools. Relative to their concentrations in colostrum, approximately 41% of the IgGl, 55% of the IgG2, 29% of the IgM, and 67% of the IgA was absorbed. The IgA was absorbed the best and IgM was least absorbed. Significant trends or differences in absorption were not observed among groups. Neonatal pigs given fresh colostrum, which had a higher fat content, had significantly more weight gain (P < 0.05). This occurred, despite the fact that the fresh colostrum had the lowest concentration of bovine immunoglobulin. Serum half-lives for bovine IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly less than for porcine IgG (P < 0.05), whereas the half-lives for bovine and porcine IgM and IgA were similar.

De novo-synthesized immunoglobulins were detectable in serum after 6 days; IgM concentrations reached a maximum at 15 days in neonatal pigs given stored, but not fresh, colostrum. The IgG and IgA concentrations steadily increased in all groups and were highest on day 42, when the study was terminated. Neonatal pigs ingesting fresh colostrum had significantly lower concentrations of de novo-synthesized IgG and IgA than pigs fed stored colostrum (P < 0.05). Concentrations in these pigs were also lower than those in conventionally reared pigs. This occurred, despite the lower immunoglobulin concentration in fresh colostrum, and correspondingly, the lower amount of bovine immunoglobulin in pigs that received this colostrum and absorbed it into their serum. In most instances, the amounts of immunoglobulin of any isotype absorbed from stored colostrum and the amount of de novo-synthesized immunoglobulin present 6 weeks later, were inversely correlated. Data indicated that a storage-labile, nonimmunoglobulin factor, in bovine colostrum is able to suppress de novo IgG and IgA synthesis by neonatal pigs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine functional responses of neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils to various inflammatory agonists.

Animals

100 one-day-old chickens and turkeys.

Procedure

Blood heterophils were isolated and stimulated for 30 minutes at 39 C with ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), opsonized zymosan (OZ), or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). Functional responses (shape change, adherence, phagocytosis, influx of intracellular calcium, and oxidative burst) of stimulated heterophils were measured and compared with responses of unstimulated (control) heterophils.

Results

Turkey and chicken heterophils did not respond to FMLP stimulation. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with ionomycin resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, intracellular calcium concentration, and oxidative burst. Turkey heterophils did not respond to PMA stimulation, whereas stimulation of chicken heterophils with PMA resulted in significant increases in adherence, percentage of cells with a shape change, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst but not intracellular calcium concentration. Stimulation of chicken and turkey heterophils with OZ resulted in significant increases in oxidative burst.

Conclusions

Mechanisms regulating initiation of heterophil activation in neonatal chicken and turkey heterophils are consistent with those described for heterophils isolated from mature birds. The biochemical and cytoskeletal systems of neonatal avian heterophils undergo functional alterations following stimulation with inflammatory agonists.

Clinical Relevance

Understanding heterophil activation and regulation should eventually lead to methods for controlling bacterial diseases in poultry. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1404–1408)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate effects of thermal environment on response to acute peripheral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge exposure in neonatal pigs.

Animals

26 neonatal pigs.

Procedure

Pigs were assigned to the following treatment groups: 1 warm environment/LPS; 2 warm environment/saline solution; 3 cool environment/LPS; and 4 cool environment/saline solution. For each pig given LPS. 1 littermate of the same sex was given saline solution. Sows with baby pigs were housed in a warm (32 C) or cool (21 C) thermal environment. At 28 days of age, pigs were given 150 µg/kg of body weight of Escherichia coli LPS or saline solution intraperitoneally as a control. Rectal temperature and signs of sickness were monitored for 3 hours after LPS administration, when pigs were euthanatized and blood samples were collected to determine serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and cortisol. To determine in vitro production of TNFα, alveolar macrophages were collected by tracheal lavage and incubated for 24 hours at 37 or 41 C, with or without LPS (10 µg/ml).

Results

Thermal environment had a significant (P = 0.0004) effect on rectal temperature; LPS administration induced a febrile response (P = 0.0007) only in pigs in the warm environment. All LPS-injected pigs developed signs of endotoxemia; serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased (TNFα, P = 0.003; cortisol, P = 0.0001); there was no significant in vivo thermal effect on serum TNFα and cortisol concentrations. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages produced significantly less (P = 0.0086) TNFα when incubated at 41 C.

Conclusions

Thermal environment can have a significant impact on the response of neonatal pigs exposed to bacterial endotoxins. (Am J Vet Res 1997; 58:364-369)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To protect neonatal calves against fatal salmonellosis within the first 2 weeks after birth, using chicken egg yolk antibodies specific against Salmonella typhimurium or S dublin.

Animals

38 neonatal Holstein calves from Salmonella-free farms.

Procedure

After removal of the lipid components with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose phthalate, egg yolk antibodies were spray dried. At 4 days of age, calves were challenge exposed by oral inoculation with 1011 virulent S typhimurium (experiment 1) or S dublin (experiment 2). Starting from the challenge-exposure day, egg yolk antibody preparations were administered orally 3 times a day for 7 to 10 days.

Results

In passive immunization trials, the orally administered antibodies conferred dose-dependent protection against infection with each of the homologous strains of Salmonella. Within 7 to 10 days after challenge exposure, all control calves died, whereas low-titer antibody-treated calves had 60 to 100% mortality. Only fever and diarrhea, but no deaths (P < 0.01), were observed in calves given the highest titer of antibody.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Compared with that in control calves, survival was significantly higher among calves given antibodies with titers of 500 (P < 0.05) and 1,000 (P < 0.01) homotypic for S typhimurium and with titer of 5,000 (P < 0.01) for S dublin. Egg yolk antibodies specific for whole cell S typhimurium or S dublin are protective against fatal salmonellosis when given in sufficiently high concentration, and may be clinically useful during a salmonellosis outbreak. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:416–420)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

High plasma cortisol concentration is associated with perception of stress and reduced immune function in pigs. Neonatal pigs (12, 19, or 26 days old) were tested to determine maximal cortisol response to a mild restraint stressor. Pigs were fitted with indwelling jugular cannulas 4 days prior to restraint. One day before restraint, 10 ml of blood was removed for lymphocyte isolation and subsequent in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin 2 (il-2) assays. On the day of restraint, blood samples were drawn 10 minutes before and 3, 10, and 20 minutes after holding each pig in a supine position for 1 minute. Plasma cortisol concentration was determined by use of radioimmunoassay. Pigs with maximal cortisol response greater than the mean value for that age group were classified in the high-responder (hires) group. Conversely, those with values lower than the mean maximal response were assigned to the low-responder (lores) group. The HIRES pigs had larger relative adrenal gland weights and higher baseline and maximal cortisol responses, compared with lores pigs (P = 0.0170, P = 0.0002, P = 0.0001, respectively). Mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferative responses (to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and pokeweed mitogen) were 60% lower (P = 0.0037, P = 0.0432, P = 0.0103, respectively) in hires vs lores pigs. In vitro il-2 production did not differ between hires and lores pigs. Lymphocyte proliferation induced by the B-cell mitogen, pokeweed mitogen, decreased 56% with age (P = 0.0151). Production of il-2 was numerically decreased (P = 0.06) by 50% in 26-day-old pigs, compared with earlier ages. These results indicate that neonatal pigs with low cortisol response to stress may have an advantage, from an immunologic standpoint, over pigs prone to stress.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research