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SUMMARY

Analysis of hepatic enzyme activities in serum samples from 1- to 3-day-old pups revealed alkaline phosphatase (alp) activities that were 30 times higher and γ-glutamyltransferase (ggt) activities that were 100 times higher than activities in clinically normal adult dogs. A study was conducted to investigate high enzyme activity in pups and to determine whether there is any association between serum enzyme activity and colostrum ingestion, passive transfer of maternal serum enzyme (in colostrum or in utero), or excessive renal or hepatic tissue enzymes. Serum enzyme activity was quantified in 15 neonatal pups before and after ingestion of colostrum and in 3 colostrum-deprived neonates fed a milk substitute. Serum samples were collected on postpartum days 0, 1, 10, 15, and 30. Enzyme activity was also quantified in serum from pregnant and lactating bitches (collected on days -2, 0, 1, 10, 30), hepatic and renal tissue from clinically normal adult dogs and 1-day-old pups, colostrum, milk (collected on days 10 and 30), and milk replacer.

Significant (P < 0.01) differences in serum ggt and alp activities between colostrum-deprived and suckling pups did not exist before initial feeding. Significant (P < 0.001) increases in serum ggt and alp activities developed within 24 hours in suckling pups, but not in the colostrum-deprived pups. At 10 and 30 days after birth, serum ggt and alp activities were less than values before suckling in all pups.

Enzyme activities in bitches’ serum remained within the normal range for adult dogs throughout whelping and lactation. Renal ggt and alp activities were substantially greater than hepatic enzyme activities in neonates and adults. Renal tissue from adults contained 3 times greater ggt and 2 times greater alp activities than that from neonates. Hepatic tissue from neonates contained 5 times more ggt activity than did hepatic tissues from clinically normal adults; however, hepatic alp activity was similar in adults and neonates.

Colostrum and milk had substantially higher enzyme activities than did bitches’ serum. Activities of ggt and alp in milk were 100 times and 10 times greater, respectively, than activities in serum through day 10. By day 30, ggt and alp activities in milk were less than before suckling. Enzyme activity was not detected in the milk substitute.

These studies reveal an association between colostrum ingestion by suckling and acute, profound increases in serum ggt and alp in 1- to 3-day-old pups. Although this phenomenon might be useful as an indicator of colostrum ingestion, it precludes the diagnostic use of either enzyme as an indicator of hepatobiliary disease in 3-day-old pups.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sample, a brief clinical examination, which included measurement of rectal temperature and assessment of neonatal stress and asphyxia, was performed on each calf. c One liter of the dam's colostrum was fed to each calf via a nipple bottle after

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To detect localization of α1-acid glycoprotein (α1,-AG) antigens in the liver tissue of cattle by use of immunoperoxidase technique.

Sample Population

Liver specimens from 6 bovine fetuses, 2 healthy bovine neonates, 2 healthy adult cattle, 3 cattle with experimentally induced hepatic abscesses, and 2 cattle with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL).

Procedure

3 cattle (with hepatic abscesses) were inoculated with a suspension of Fusobacterium necrophorum in the ruminal vein. Serum α1-AG concentration was determined by use of the single radial immunodiffusion method. Livers from fetuses, newborn calves, and adult or sick cattle were fixed in buffered 10% formalin, dehydrated in alcohol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by use of the avidin-biotin complex/immunoperoxidase technique.

Results

Sites of localization of the α1-AG antigen positive reaction (AGPR) in the liver obtained from bovine fetuses, neonates, or sick cattle were different. In fetal and newborn calves, the AGPR was detected in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Intensity of the reaction varied in direct proportion to α1-AG serum concentration. In adult cattle, the AGPR was particularly intense in hepatocytes adjacent to abscesses or EBL-induced tumors.

Conclusions

The pattern of distribution of cells with AGPR in the liver varied, depending on severity of inflammation. In the cattle with EBL, whether the AGPR was attributable to inflammation could not be clarified, although suppression of immunologic response to tumors may have been a cause of the observed reaction. This association suggests that the glycoprotein may be synthesized, mainly in hepatocytes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:725–728)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To examine stability of -glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in stored serum from neonatal calves.

Animals

10 commercial beef calves between 36 and 60 hours old.

Procedure

Serum samples were obtained from the calves, and each sample was divided into 8 aliquots. Serum GGT activity was measured on day 0 (fresh) and days 1, 2, 3, and 4 of refrigerated storage (4 C) and weeks 1, 2, and 3 of frozen storage (−20 C).

Results

Serum GGT activities for each of the refrigerated aliquots did not significantly differ from day zero, with serum GGT activity (expressed as a percentage of initial activity) > 99% on all 4 days. Serum GGT activity in frozen aliquots decreased significantly after 1 and 2 weeks of frozen storage, 97 and 98%, respectively; however, this decrease in GGT activity was not biologically significant. The observed GGT activity did not decrease significantly in the samples stored frozen for 3 weeks; these samples retained 99% of initial activity.

Conclusion

The observed stability of serum GGT activity indicates that serum may be obtained, stored, and batch processed at a later time. This stability during storage is important to the success of a bovine passive transfer monitoring program based on GGT activity. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:354-355)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Lambs are born with negligible serum IgG concentrations, so neonatal lambs depend on the passive transfer of maternal IgG in colostrum to provide humoral immunity during the neonatal period. 1–6 Failure of the neonatal lambs to obtain and absorb

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

been cited. 4 Clinical reports 8,9 of IVLE administration–associated bleeding disorders in humans have mostly involved immature or low–birth weight neonates who have been found to have a diminished ability to metabolize lipids. In addition, some

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

acute hemolytic transfusion reactions and neonatal isoerythrolysis. 1–15 The biochemistry and molecular basis of blood types A and B are known, 16,17 and a DNA test is available to identify the b allele, a allowing identification of type B cats or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

23 horses (1984–1989) . J Vet Intern Med 1992 ; 6 : 29 – 35 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1992.tb00982.x 2. Barton MH Morris DD Norton N , et al. Hemostatic and fibrinolytic indices in neonatal foals with presumed septicemia . J Vet Intern Med

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

disease, neonatal sepsis, laminitis, and equine herpesvirus infection. 10–12 The underlying cause of thrombosis is unknown, but it is likely related to systemic inflammation, given that inflammatory cytokines trigger coagulation. 13 Because of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Biochemical markers of cardiac injury in normal, surviving septic, or nonsurviving septic neonatal foals . J Vet Intern Med 2005 ; 19 : 577 – 580 . 12. Jesty SA Sweeney RW Dolente BA , et al. Idiopathic pericarditis and cardiac tamponade in two

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research