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anesthetized neonatal foals. Materials and Methods Animals —Six neonatal foals between 1 and 3 days of age and weighing between 38 and 45 kg were used in the study. Each foal had a normal birth and was determined to be healthy on the basis of results of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Cardiovascular depression is commonly encountered in anesthetized neonatal foals and in foals with sepsis, perinatal asphyxia, or both. 1 Cardiovascular monitoring in neonatal foals usually includes any or all of the following parameters: heart

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Cardiovascular monitoring in anesthetized neonatal foals often does not include CO determinations because of the invasiveness of most methods. Thermodilution and LiDCO are accepted methods for CO determination in foals. However, most studies 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hemodynamic derangements are common in critically ill neonatal foals, and monitoring cardiovascular function in those animals is an important part of patient management. 1–6 Many of those hemodynamic derangements adversely affect tissue perfusion

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

validated and compared with the TDCO method in neonatal foals and other species. 14,15 The UDCO technique was recently evaluated in anesthetized euvolemic neonatal foals (1 to 3 days of age). 6 There is, however, significant variation in CO values among

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-anesthetized foals (2.5, 5, and 10 μg/kg/min) 14 with dose-dependent effects observed in a separate equine neonatal study 10 (4 vs 8 μg/kg/min). The documented increase in arterial blood pressures may partly be attributed to the slight α-adrenergic effects of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fibrinolysis and in vivo serum markers of fibrinolysis. 13,14 In addition, TEG studies in adult and neonatal humans reveal a dose-dependent enhancement of fibrinolysis in vitro with both tPA and urokinase. 13,15 Recently, TEG was used in an in vitro study of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, compared with the other techniques. It has also been used successfully to monitor CO in anesthetized 15 and sick 30 neonatal foals. Lithium dilution was also found to be accurate for the measurement of CO in dogs, compared with thermodilution, and to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

attributable to the absence of an ECG-gated scan was still present. An ECG-gated scan has been shown to improve image quality and increase diagnostic accuracy in human neonates and infants. 44,45 However, results of some studies also suggest that the principle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

other species to be vital for complex I activity 29 and energy metabolism. 30 Altered protein expression in complexes I, III, IV, and V are similar to those associated with altered oxidative phosphorylation in neonates and children with dilated and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research