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Shortly after birth, neonatal foals are active, agile, and responsive to the environment; however, they predictably collapse and become flaccid during a particular type of physical restraint. 1–5 This phenomenon, previously referred to by various

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

external occipital protuberance (poll) of the skull. 13 Use of a penetrating captive bolt device for euthanasia of neonatal goat kids poses a safety risk because the bolt might exit the ventral aspect of the skull and impact an unintended object

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in certain animal groups, including suckling pigs, neonatal ruminants, and turkeys. 6 Detailed instructions are provided for use of penetrating captive bolts in the euthanasia of cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and pigs. Although evidence 6

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-3959(02)00038-6 36. Debillon T Zupan V Ravault N , Development and initial validation of the EDIN scale, a new tool for assessing prolonged pain in preterm infants . Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2001 ; 85 : F36 – F40 . 10.1136/fn.85.1.F36 37. Varni

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research