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inoculation in blood tubes without an anticoagulant to obtain serum for VN and VI. Nasal swab specimens for VI were also obtained and body temperature measured by use of a rectal thermometer on days 0, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, and 14 after BVDV challenge

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

serum samples and nasal swab specimens obtained from calves vaccinated with a modified-live BVDV vaccine. In 1 study, 11 serum samples obtained from 78% of vaccinated calves between 3 and 10 days after vaccination and tested by use of RT-PCR assay had

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

standardized protocol ( Appendix ). Rectal temperatures were measured on the same days during the afternoon. Rectal temperatures > 38.8°C were considered clinically relevant. Nasal swab specimens and virus isolation —Nasal swab specimens were taken daily from

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

inactivated BCoV (Mebus strain), rotavirus G6 and G10, Escherichia coli K99 bacterin, and Clostridium perfringens type C toxoid with a saponin adjuvant to enhance the immune response. Sample collection —Nasal swab specimens, fecal samples, and blood

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were subsequently overrepresented. All ponies were subjected to bacteriologic culture of nasal swab specimens and PCR testing for S equi prior to enrollment in the study. Serum titers against S equi were also measured in all ponies prior to and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-detection ELISA. 18 , f Blood samples and nasal swab specimens were collected from PI cows on days 90, 120, and 150 for use in virus isolation and virus titration. 19 Genotypic analysis —After viral isolation and biological cloning of viral isolates from the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

—Beginning 2 days before calves were vaccinated (day of vaccination = day 0), rectal temperature and any clinical signs of infection were recorded daily for each calf. In addition, nasal swab specimens were collected from each calf for use in BVDV isolation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research