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administration of a second (booster) dose of the assigned vaccine. The goal of IN administration of a modified-live IBR-PI3 vaccine to cattle is to provide immunity against viral colonization of the nasal passages and subsequent disease development. 7 Similar to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the amount of EHV-1 nasal shedding or in the level or duration of viremia between treated horses and control horses. However, there was a significant difference in the proportion of horses that developed severe EHM and required euthanasia. Three of 4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

collection and treated in accordance with the standard operating procedure established for cattle maintained at the USMARC. Diagnosis of BRD was made on the basis of the presence of clinical signs such as lethargy, anorexia, abnormal breathing, nasal and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

clinical signs of infection with either pathogen. Pigs were transported to the isolation facility and acclimatized for 3 days prior to initiation of the study. Blood and swab specimens of nasal secretions were collected for analysis via RT-PCR assay to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

any clinical signs as a result of experimental infection with BVDV; however, they actively shed the virus in nasal excretions for up to 7 days after inoculation. Only 2 studies 23,24 have assessed interspecies transmission of BVDV, focusing on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

admission to the shelter by 1 of 2 investigators (TLD or HDW). Body weight was recorded and age was estimated on the basis of dental examination. Cats estimated to be > 6 months old were assigned a score for clinical signs of ocular or nasal disease by use

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

nebulizer via a bleeder-type cutoff valve attachment j and was positioned on a rolling cart adjacent to a hydraulic chute. Individual steers were restrained securely in the hydraulic chute, and nasal swab specimens were collected to determine prior exposure

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

than is commonly believed. 11–14 Viral respiratory tract infections of horses are typically characterized by high fever (39° to 40°C), cough, and nasal discharge. 2,15,16 Such infections typically spread to other horses in a population, and the course

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bacterial isolates cultured from antemortem oropharyngeal or nasal swab specimens obtained from free-ranging bighorn sheep submitted to the Caine Veterinary Teaching Center were included in the present study. However, isolates from a 1995–1996 respiratory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether genogroup 1 porcine torque teno virus (g1-TTV) can potentiate clinical disease associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2).

Sample population—33 gnotobiotic baby pigs.

Procedures—Pigs were allocated into 7 groups: group A, 5 uninoculated control pigs from 3 litters; group B, 4 pigs oronasally inoculated with PCV2 alone; group C, 4 pigs inoculated IP with first-passage g1-TTV alone; group D, 4 pigs inoculated IP with fourth-passage g1-TTV alone; group E, 6 pigs inoculated IP with first-passage g1-TTV and then oronasally inoculated with PCV2 7 days later; group F, 6 pigs inoculated IP with fourth-passage g1-TTV and then inoculated oronasally with PCV2 7 days later; and group G, 4 pigs inoculated oro-nasally with PCV2 and then inoculated IP with fourth-passage g1-TTV 7 days later.

Results—6 of 12 pigs inoculated with g1-TTV prior to PCV2 developed acute onset of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). None of the pigs inoculated with g1-TTV alone or PCV2 alone or that were challenge exposed to g1-TTV after establishment of infection with PCV2 developed clinical illness. Uninoculated control pigs remained healthy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These data implicated g1-TTV as another viral infection that facilitates PCV2-induced PMWS. This raises the possibility that torque teno viruses in swine may contribute to disease expression currently associated with only a single infectious agent.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research