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distal tarsal joints, forelimb proximal interphalangeal joints, and metacarpophalangeal joints is a common cause of reduced performance in dressage horses. 4 Mesenchymal stem cells have received a great deal of attention in recent years regarding

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

articular cartilage. 7 Mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotential cells capable of differentiating into multiple types of connective tissue cells. 8 Mesenchymal stem cells have been recognized as an attractive resource for the repair of musculoskeletal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Extracellular matrix GAG Glycosaminoglycan HA Hyaluronic acid MSC Mesenchymal stem cell MW Molecular weight SEM Scanning electron microscopy TGF Transforming growth factor a. D1 ORL UVA, American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Va. b

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-derived mesenchymal stem cells that are highly proliferative cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity, including various mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, and tendon. 1 Bone marrow is also known to contain various

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Methods Sample collection —Articular cartilage was aseptically collected immediately after death from the femoropatellar joints of 3 clinically normal adult horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Bone marrow—derived mesenchymal stem cells

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells are pluripotent and may differentiate into many mesenchymal lineages, including muscle, bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament, and may be carrier cells for ex vivo gene transfer. 34–39 Localized delivery of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that goal. Mesenchymal stem cells can engraft into host tissues and differentiate into target cells. 6 Proposed mechanisms of action of MSCs in the treatment of osteoarthritis include immunomodulation and reversal of the proinflammatory cascade

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(chondrogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells). Those horses, however, were not involved in the present study in any way. Because the horses of the present study comprised the placebo group of the larger study, they received a 2-mL injection of saline (0.9% NaCl

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, compared with normal-joint chondrocytes in monolayer culture. 37 Mesenchymal stem cells aspirated from bone marrow adjacent to severely arthritic joints in humans have decreased in vitro chondrogenic activity, compared with similar cells from bone marrow

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

commonly added to chondrocyte cell cultures and has been used as a trigger for chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. 19,20 However, the actions of TGF-β on chondrocytes remain controversial because it has been found that TGF-β provides

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research