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status (normal or double caudal vena cava) were recorded. If an anatomic abnormality of the ureter or caudal vena cava was detected, an external examination and full exploratory laparotomy were performed. The urinary tract was examined for evidence of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ultrasonography. Cytologic evaluation of the fluid revealed findings consistent with septic inflammation. The owner declined laparotomy and elected that the dog be euthanatized. Gastric perforation and a right-sided pheochromocytoma were diagnosed during necropsy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

monitored by evaluation of eye position, jaw tone, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure variables. Anesthesia and fluid rate were adjusted to maintain MAP > 60 mm Hg. A midline laparotomy was performed. The left renal artery was inspected. If a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were anesthetized and underwent a midline laparotomy during which the renal artery and vein of the right kidney (ischemic kidney) were occluded for 90 minutes while the vessels of the left kidney (contralateral kidney) were left undisturbed. The cats

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research