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Summary

In this double-blind study, the effectiveness of and dose response to intra-articular administration of modified hyaluronan (hylan) was determined in an equine carpal lameness model over a 23-day period, using a computerized three-dimensional motion analysis system, synovial fluid variables, and synovial histologic examination.

In 24 clinically sound horses, baseline motion data was acquired from horses trotting at 4 m/s on a high-speed treadmill. Then, to induce lameness, 25 mg of amphotericin B in 5 ml of sterile water was injected into the left middle carpal joint of each horse every other day for 3 treatments. Phenybutazone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, once) and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg, IM, q 6 h, for 36 hours) were used to control signs of discomfort. Horses were assigned at random to 4 equal groups and received intracarpal administration of either 1, 2, 4 ml of hylan (8 mg/ml), or 2 ml of balanced electrolyte solution (control).

Intracarpal administration of amphotericin B caused significant (P ≤ 0.01) increase in subjective lameness grades over the 2-week evaluation period, and hylan administration did not significantly (P ≤ 0.01) change the subjective lameness grade. Lameness induction caused significant (P ≤ 0.01) decrease in head and withers excursions during the lame forelimb support phase and significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in head and withers excursions during the sound forelimb support phase. Synovitis induction was further characterized by significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in total wbc, polymorphonuclear, and large and small mononuclear cell numbers, and synovial fluid total protein concentrations. Also, subjective scores for synovial sections were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from baseline values, but hylan treatment at the 1-, 2-, or 4-ml dose did not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) alter these variables, compared with baseline values or values in control horses. Hyaluronan concentrations were not altered by induction of synovitis or hylan treatment.

Although clinical use of hyaluronan for treatment of traumatic joint disease in horses is well accepted, the beneficial effect of hylan was not detectable in this study. Further studies are required to more fully characterize the possible beneficial effects of hyaluronan-based products for treatment of joint disease in equids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

transfixation pins would improve pin stability, as assessed with pin torque measurements, under full weight-bearing conditions, relative to uncoated pins during an 8-week period. We also hypothesized that the clinical features of lameness, radiolucency around

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Deficiency of the CCL is the most commonly diagnosed stifle injury in dogs. 1,2 It results in lameness, muscle atrophy, and ongoing poor limb function even after surgical correction. 3,4 There have been numerous studies investigating the

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction In 1999, a 9-year-old 37-kg sexually intact male snow leopard ( Panthera uncia ; case 1) with no history of lameness was evaluated during a quarantine examination. Radiography revealed right femoral subluxation and flattening of

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

lameness or decreased joint mobility and a decrease in PLL, which is similar to results for humans after high tibial osteotomy procedures. The present study revealed significant decreases in the PLL of dogs after TPLO. Additional studies are needed to

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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SUMMARY

To investigate whether arthrographic findings had any prognostic value with respect to treatment and outcome of bilateral osteochondrosis, shoulder arthrograms (n = 80) from 40 dogs with bilateral lesions were evaluated. Arthrography was performed, using 1.5 to 4 ml of a 25% solution of meglumine-sodium diatrizoate, with admixture of 0.2 mg of epinephrine. A shoulder with signs of pain and lameness was surgically treated. The contralateral shoulder was treated conservatively, and the final outcome was compared with the arthrographic findings. In 37 dogs, signs of lameness and pain were associated with a loose cartilage flap and, in 3, with a detached cartilage flap. In 2 dogs, admitted with bilateral lameness, a loose cartilage flap was detected in both shoulders. Of 12 dogs with a detectable loose cartilage flap in the contralateral shoulder joint, 6 became lame 2 to 4 months after initial surgical intervention and needed bilateral surgery. In the contralateral joint, development of thick articular cartilage over the subchondral defect or a detached cartilage flap lodged in the caudal pouch of the shoulder joint was a favorable prognostic sign. Such dogs had no signs of lameness on the contralateral side during a follow-up period that ranged from 1 to 7 years.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bilateral, midshaft metacarpal osteotomies were performed in 11 sheep and bilateral, midshaft radial osteotomies were performed in 7 sheep. The lesions were repaired with bone plates. One of each pair of plates was luted with polymethylmethacrylate and all screws were tightened uniformly with a torque screwdriver. Sheep were allowed unrestricted exercise after surgery. At 8 weeks, 10 of 11 sheep with metacarpal osteotomies were sound and both osteotomies were healing. Seven were lame on the limb with the unluted plate during the first 3 weeks; 4 were never lame on either limb. The screws of the unluted plates were significantly (P < 0.01) looser at 8 weeks than those in the luted plates. All of the sheep with radial osteotomies were lame in the limb with the unluted plate. Four of 7 sheep had overt loosening of the unluted plates. One sheep only had mild screw loosening with continued alignment of the osteotomy. Two of 7 sheep fractured the radius with the luted plate; these 2 sheep were lame in the limb with the unluted plate and were using the limb with the luted plate vigorously. Excluding the 2 sheep with fractures, all had substantially more screw loosening in the unluted plate. Histologically, there were no discernible differences in the vascularity or porosity of the bone under the luted vs the unluted plates. The only adverse consequence of the luting technique was introduction of a small amount of polymethylmethacrylate into the osteotomy gap in 5 bones.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of intra-articular administration of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) on chemically induced synovitis in the middle carpal joint of 6 weanling horses were evaluated. Following aseptic collection of synovial fluid, the middle carpal joint of each forelimb was injected with 50 mg of Namonoiodoacetate to induce synovitis. Eight days after injection, synovial fluid was obtained and the right middle carpal joints were injected with 2 ml of 40% dmso in lactated Ringer solution. The corresponding joints of the left limb (control) were injected with 2 ml of lactated Ringer solution. Sampling and treatments were repeated on postinjection days 11 and 14, for a total of 3 treatments. Horses were visually evaluated daily for lameness and joint effusion. Synovial fluid was evaluated for color and clarity, differential and total WBC count, total protein content, and hyaluronic acid concentration. The Kaegi gait analysis system provided an objective assessment of lameness prior to inducing synovitis, again on day 7, and on day 17. At necropsy (day 17), synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage specimens were collected.

Joint effusion was evident 12 hours after injection of Namonoiodoacetate in all joints. Mild lameness was evident at 24 hours; however, the lameness resolved by 72 hours. Objective assessment of lameness did not reveal significant differences between treatment or control limbs. Hyaluronic acid concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.023) above baseline values in most joints over the study period. Synovial fluid wbc counts increased significantly (P = 0.002) following Na-monoiodoacetate injection and remained significantly (P = 0.002) above baseline values throughout the study. There was a significantly greater decrease (P = 0.04) in total wbc counts between the pretreatment and final sampling period in the dmso-treated joints, compared with the controls. Histologic evaluation of synovial membrane samples revealed a significantly less inflammatory response in 4 of 6 dmso-treated joints, compared with that in the controls. Histochemical staining of articular cartilage did not reveal any observable difference between treated or control specimens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Superficial digital flexor tendinitis was induced in each forelimb of 8 horses by injecting 4,000 U of collagenase into the midmetacarpal region of the tendon. In each horse, each tendon was treated 24 and 96 hours after the collagenase injection with sc injections of sodium hyaluronate (treated limbs) or an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl solution (control limbs). Exercise was restricted for the first 3 weeks of the study, and a controlled exercise program was instituted for the remainder of the study. Horses were evaluated clinically for lameness, tendon swelling, and midmetacarpal limb circumference. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed regularly (11 examinations/horse) throughout the study, and all horses were euthanatized 12 weeks after collagenase injections. Tendons from 4 horses were harvested for biomechanical testing, and samples were obtained from tendons from the remaining 4 horses for biochemical analysis of collagen. Samples were obtained from all tendons for microscopic evaluation. Significant differences between treated and control tendons were not noticed in any of the variables examined in live horses, although trends toward less lameness in treated limbs and toward better healing on ultrasonographic examination in control limbs were recorded. Significant differences were not noticed in biomechanical or biochemical evaluations, and the only significant (P < 0.05) microscopic finding was more severe inflammation in tendons from treated limbs. This study did not reveal significant benefits of treatment with sodium hyaluronate outside a synovial sheath on tendon repair in collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clinical and biomechanical gait variables in a group of dogs before and after (for 1 year) total hip replacement.

Animals

16 dogs with degenerative joint disease of the coxofemoral joint secondary to hip dysplasia deemed candidates for total hip replacement.

Procedure

Before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, each dog was trotted over a biomechanical force platform. Vertical force data evaluated for each stance phase of the treated and untreated hind limbs included peak force, impulse, and limb loading and unloading rates. Vertical peak and impulse data were also evaluated for the forelimbs. Measurements analyzed in the craniocaudal axis, divided into braking and propulsion phases, consisted of peak force and associated impulses. Also, orthopedic examination for each dog included subjective scoring for limb lameness at each evaluation period.

Results

Most ground reaction forces (GRF) were significantly lower before surgery for the proposed treated, compared with the proposed untreated, limb. This difference between limbs continued through postoperative month 1. Also at 1 month, some treated limb values were significantly lower than preoperative values. By 3 to 6 months, treated limb GRF increased so that no significant difference between limbs could be found. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion impulse values were significantly higher in the treated than untreated limb from the 6-month evaluation period through the remainder of the study. Braking component of the craniocaudal axes measurements was unchanged throughout the study.

Conclusions

GRF indicated that dogs of this study had significantly increased loading function of the treated hind limb by 6 months after unilateral total hip replacement. Data also indicated that some force was transferred from the untreated to treated hip over the study period. Loading rates also increased over the study period, indicating increased willingness to load the treated hip over time. Craniocaudal axis data ndicated no improvement in braking forces with coxofemoral joint replacement, suggesting that the coxofemoral joint with degenerative joint disease did not have altered braking performance at a trotting gait. Comparison of subjective lameness scores and objective GRF indicated that visual grading of coxofemoral joint lameness is limited. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1781–1785)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research