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. Most of the cattle appeared clinically normal, whereas others were mildly affected and had signs of stress and pain such as tachypnea and labored breathing, mild lameness, and a stiff gait. More severely affected cattle had extreme signs of stress and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the patterns of use and perceived efficacy of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG) for the treatment of degenerative joint disease in horses.

Design

Cross-sectional mail survey.

Sample Population

1,522 equine practitioners.

Procedure

Information was obtained on frequency and route of administration of PSGAG for the treatment of each of 4 forms of degenerative joint disease, the efficacy of PSGAG, and its efficacy compared with that of sodium hyaluronate. Data were analyzed by nonparametric and multivariate regression methods.

Results

Response rate was 40.5%. Of practitioners responding, 26% were classified as having a special interest in lameness and 74% as general practitioners. Use of PSGAG was reported by 90.5% of all practitioners, but lameness practitioners used PSGAG more frequently than general practitioners. Use of PSGAG also was significantly more common among practitioners involved predominately with racing Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, or show horses. Use of PSGAG was reported to be moderately effective in the treatment of the 4 joint disease conditions. Practitioners treating Thoroughbred racehorses gave highest efficacy scores, and pleasure horse practitioners gave lowest efficacy scores. Use of PSGAG was considered more effective than sodium hyaluronate for the treatment of subacute degenerative joint disease and less effective for idiopathic joint effusion and acute synovitis.

Clinical Implications

Use of PSGAG is regarded as moderately effective overall and is considered most useful in the treatment of subacute degenerative joint disease. The efficacy of PSGAG for incipient and chronic forms of degenerative disease is considered comparable to that of sodium hyaluronate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1564–1568)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To assess the prevalence of severe welfare problems in horses that arrive at slaughter plants and to identify horses that were unfit for travel.

Design

Pevalence survey.

Animals

1,008 horses.

Procedure

Horses arriving at 2 slaughter plants were observed. The following were rated severe welfare problems in horses: body condition scores of 1 or 2 (emaciated) of 9; recumbency (down) or the inability to walk; fractured limbs or other foot or limb problems that extremely impaired mobility; severe wounds, such as deep cuts, extensive lacerations, abrasions on the head or back, eye injuries, neglected purulent lesions, and numerous bite and kick marks over extensive areas of the body, and dead on arrival. Bruises on carcasses were tabulated to further assess injuries. Horses that had been loaded with a fractured limb, arrived nonambulatory, had severe lameness that interfered with mobility, were weak and emaciated, or were dead on arrival or died shortly after arrival were considered unfit for travel.

Results

Ninety-two percent (930/1,008) of the horses arrived in good condition, and 7.7% (78) had a condition that was rated a serious welfare problem. Thirty horses (3%) had a body condition score of 1 or 2, 12 (1.0%) had foot and limb problems (other than fractures), 4 (0.4%) had fractured limbs. 18 (2.0%) had deep cuts, lacerations, or injuries from bites. 8 (0.8%) were nonambulatory or dead on arrival, 2 (0.2%) had deformities, 3 (0.3%) had extensive purulent lesions, and 1 (0.1%) had a behavior problem. Characteristic patterns of 51% of carcass bruises indicated that they were caused by bites or kicks. Fighting was the major cause of injuries that occurred during transport and marketing. Fifteen (1.5%) horses were unfit for travel. Abuse or neglect by owners was the cause of 77% of the severe welfare problems observed.

Clinical Implications

To decrease the number of injuries that result from fighting when transporting horses to slaughter plants, aggressive mares and geldings that continually attack other horses must be segregated. (J Am Med Assoc 1999;214:1531-1533)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

rehabilitation facilities. We hypothesized that unresolved lameness would be the primary reason for referral and that distance to a rehabilitation facility would be the primary impediment to referral. Materials and Methods Data Collection The study

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

.9) Death 12 (5.5) Lack of consciousness 12 (5.5) Diarrhea 10 (4.6) Hypersensitivity (not specifed) 10 (4.6) Anorexia 9 (4.1) Fever 9 (4.1) Anaphylaxis 6 (2.8) Ataxia 6 (2.8) Lameness 6 (2

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; these can result in severe lameness and prevent the canine team from performing its mission. Military working dogs may often need to maneuver over rough, uneven terrain, sometimes with very high surface temperatures. As part of their duties, some dogs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

; 24 : 166 – 170 . 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0407.x 7. Conzemius MG , Evans RB . Caregiver placebo effect for dogs with lameness from osteoarthritis . J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012 ; 241 : 1314 – 1319 . 10.2460/javma.241.10.1314 8. Gruen

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association