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Infectious and noninfectious lameness in growing swine are a welfare concern and can increase production costs. Lameness diagnosis has historically relied on detection of gross changes coupled with results of postmortem microbial culture and PCR

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To develop and define a model of acute synovitis/capsulitis in the equine metacarpophalangeal joint (fetlock) to study clinical effects of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

Animals

5 adult Standardbreds.

Procedure

Polyvinyl alcohol foam particles were injected into the left front fetlock of horses; the right front fetlock was used as a control. Horses were examined clinically and for lameness on a regular basis. Blood samples were taken to measure routine variables. Synovial fluid samples were collected from both fetlocks, and macroscopic, microscopic, and biochemical variables were measured. The effects of local diagnostic nerve blocks and intra-articular anesthesia of the fetlock on ensuing lameness were determined on days 2 and 3. After macroscopic evaluation at necropsy, histologic examination was performed on the fetlock cartilage and capsule.

Results

Changes in synovial fluid variables included increased TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases values and in other indicators of acute inflammation. With respect to application of local nerve blocks, lameness decreased most after a combination of metacarpal and palmar nerve blocks, whereas lameness could only partially be blocked by intra-articular anesthesia. At necropsy, mild chronic inflammation of the synovium and deeper layers of the joint capsule was found; polyvinyl alcohol particles had been incorporated into the joint capsule. There was no evidence of articular cartilage damage.

Conclusions

Injection of polyvinyl alcohol foam particles induces transient synovitis/capsulitis in the fetlock, mimicking clinical joint disorders. The model does not seriously affect the horse's long-term well-being. Such model serves well for studying the effect of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:978–985)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The hypothesis that equine laminitis is caused by thrombosis of vessels in the laminar corium (dermis) was investigated. Hemostatic alterations were evaluated by determining platelet count, platelet survival, platelet adhesiveness to vascular subendothelium, activated clotting time, and whole blood recalcification time. Thrombosis of vessels in the hoof wall was evaluated by scintigraphic studies of the hoof wall after administration of indium-111 (111In)-labeled platelets, contrast arteriography, and histologic examination. Platelet count remained constant before and at the onset of lameness; however, survival of 111In-labeled platelets was shortened. Scintigraphy of affected feet revealed accumulation of 111In-labeled platelets distal to the coronary band. Arteriography of disarticulated saline-perfused feet revealed marked reduction in blood supply to affected hooves. Histologic examination of the laminar dermis disclosed variable numbers of microthrombi in dermal veins of affected feet from 3 of 4 ponies with laminitis. Whole blood recalcification time was shortened at 8 hours after administration of carbohydrate and was prolonged at the onset of laminitis. Activated clotting time was prolonged at 32 hours after carbohydrate administration and at the onset of lameness. Plasma endotoxin-like activity was detected in 1 of 4 affected ponies. These data confirm that microvascular thrombosis existed at the onset of lameness in ponies with carbohydrate-induced laminitis and indicate that systemic coagulopathy may have preceded development of thrombosis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis was studied in 15 horses during the prodromal stages of acute 1aminitis induced by carbohydrate overload. Progression of the disease was stopped 12 to 24 hours before the expected onset of lameness in trial 1 (8 horses) and at the onset of lameness in trial 2 (7 horses). The end points in each trial were identified by specific changes in blood pressures (trial 1) and by changes in pulse, rectal temperature, and arterial pressure (trial 2) that were anticipated on the basis of original description of the experimental model. Blood samples for hemostasis evaluation were collected before and after carbohydrate overload in trial 1 and after carbohydrate overload in trial 2.

Significant changes were not detected in platelet count, mean platelet volume, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen concentration, plasminogen concentration, α-2-antiplasmin, antithrombin III, protein C, thromboxane B2, or fibrin(ogen) degradation product concentration. We concluded that an imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis is not pathogenic in the onset of experimentally induced equine acute laminitis. Because several test methods used to evaluate hemostasis in these horses were new, reference values for 34 healthy adult horses were established.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Prothrombotic changes occurring in the prodromal stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis were investigated. Hemostatic alterations were evaluated by determining platelet counts, platelet survival, activated partial thromboplastin time, one-stage prothrombin time, and monocyte procoagulant activity. Thrombosis of vessels in the hoof wall was evaluated by contrast arteriography and histologic examination. Of 5 horses, 4 became lame between 28 and 52 hours after carbohydrate administration. Mean platelet count in laminitis-affected horses was lower throughout the prodromal stages of laminitis, compared with that in control horses, but differences were not statistically significant. However, survival of indium-111-labeled platelets was less than the value in control horses by 6 hours after carbohydrate administration. Arteriography of disarticulated feet revealed marked reduction in blood supply to hooves in laminitis-affected horses. Histologic examination of the laminar dermis disclosed microthrombi in venules of the laminar dermis in 2 of 4 affected horses. Statistically significant changes in prothrombin time were not observed, and changes in activated partial thromboplastin time were slight and occurred only at the onset of lameness. Statistically significant changes in monocyte procoagulant activity were not observed. Plasma endotoxin-like activity was not detected in laminitis-affected horses. These data indicate that platelet survival was decreased within the first 6 hours after induction of carbohydrate-induced laminitis, but systemic activation of the coagulation system was not detected.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To determine whether platelets are hyperaggregable or form platelet-neutrophil aggregates during the prodromal stages of acute laminitis of ponies.

Animals

Healthy adult ponies: 8 experimental and 6 control.

Procedures

Acute laminitis was induced by oral administration of corn starch and wood flour to 8 ponies, and indices of platelet activation were evaluated. Blood samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 12, 24, 28, and 32 hours after carbohydrate administration, and PCV, total plasma protein concentration, platelet count, activated clotting time, whole blood recalcification time, spontaneous platelet aggregation, ex vivo platelet aggregation responses, and platelet-neutrophil aggregates were determined. When lameness was first detected, ponies were euthanatized and arteriography and histologic examination of hooves were performed.

Results

Carbohydrate overload was associated with hyperaggregability of platelets throughout the prodromal stages of laminitis and increased numbers of platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Reduction of blood supply to affected hooves was variable, and blood clots were found in 6 of 11 laminitis-affected hooves.

Conclusions

Platelets were hyperaggregable throughout the prodromal stages of carbohydrate-induced laminitis and formed platelet-neutrophil aggregates. Platelet-neutrophil aggregates may initiate or contribute to development of acute laminitis.

Clinical Relevance

Anti-platelet therapy may be useful for treatment of acute alimentary laminitis in horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1376–1380)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

according to the Danish Animal Testing Act. All other samples were obtained at the discretion of the attending clinician as part of routine evaluation (n = 5) or lameness evaluation or treatment (n = 21) from clientowned horses admitted to the university

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research