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-2 and -9 activities, and lameness in dogs with arthropathy. Materials and Methods Animals and sample collection —Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan a (5 mg/kg) was administered IM 3,26,27 to 16 privately owned dogs that were brought to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine via histologic examination and scintigraphy the effect of focused extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on normal bone and the bone-ligament interface in horses.

Animals—6 horses without lameness.

Procedure—Origins of the suspensory ligament at the metacarpus (35-mm probe depth) and fourth metatarsal bone (5-mm probe depth) were treated twice (days 0 and 16) with 2,000 shocks (energy flux density, 0.15 mJ/mm2). One forelimb and 1 hind limb were randomly treated, and the contralateral limbs served as nontreated controls. Bone scans were performed on days −1 (before ESWT), 3, 16, and 19. Histomorphologic studies of control and treated tissues were performed on day 30.

Results—ESWT significantly increased the number of osteoblasts but caused no damage to associated soft tissue structures and did not induce cortical microfractures. A significant correlation between osteoblast numbers and radiopharmaceutical uptake was noticed on lateral views of the hind limb on days 3 and 16 and on caudal views of the forelimb on day 3.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ESWT has the potential to increase osteoblast numbers in horses. The correlation between increased osteoblast numbers and radio-pharmaceutical uptake 3 days and 16 days after the first ESWT suggested that stimulation of osteogenesis occurred soon after ESWT. No damage to bone or the bone-ligament interface should occur at the settings used in this study, and ESWT can therefore be administered safely in horses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, g respectively. All horses were evaluated by use of subjective lameness grades from 0 to 5 on the American Association of Equine Practitioners lameness scale (days 0, 7, and 14), kinetic gait analysis (days −1, 7, and 14

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

treatment of horses with joint disease have been published. In dogs with OA, treatment with ESWT does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the degree of lameness, although it does appear to prevent deterioration, compared with the effects of no

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

resulted in very mild lameness (ie, no visually evident lameness and only changes in symmetry indices in an early stage, compared with presurgical findings, but a positive flexion test response at 4 postsurgical time points) and onset of osteoarthritis was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

have been reported when MSCs were injected intra-articularly into the joints of animals affected by naturally occurring osteoarthritis. 18–22 Subjective measures such as owner-perceived functional disability and lameness and pain evaluation performed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Horses with OCD of the IRT often have clinical signs of inflammation of the TCJ. 1–13 Many affected horses may have joint effusion, lameness, or both, whereas others have no clinical signs. Clinical observations provide a subjective assessment of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

reaction forces and subjective lameness scores in the affected limb, compared with results for a control substance. Materials and Methods Animals —Sixteen purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs (8 males and 8 females) were obtained from an animal supplier for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subjective nature of the assessments. An additional limitation is that it is unclear whether the reported change in gait following denervation was a beneficial effect of the denervation procedure or a reflection of resolving lameness commonly seen in young

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Lameness is a common cause of reduced work and early retirement of horses, and the most common cause of lameness is osteoarthritis; approximately 60% of lameness problems in horses is related to osteoarthritis. 1 Several intra-articular and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research