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combination of the primary oxidative effect and the secondary inflammatory response induced by damaged hepatocytes. 13 Tumor necrosis factor α is directly toxic to hepatocytes and induces apoptosis. 14 Interleukin-1β and IL-6 reduce hepatocyte protein

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; leukocyte count; and plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin-6, thromboxane B 2 , and prostaglandin F 1 α . 26 Transient tachypnea, sweating, and increased plasma thromboxane concentration associated with polymyxin B-dextran 70 conjugate usage (with or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,23 and increases concentrations of some anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-10. 24,25 Most studies, including all of the human clinical trials 5–7,9–11,26 as well as canine, 13,27 rat, 12,28–31 mouse, 25,32 guinea pig, 19 and hamster

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

enzymes that hydrolyze cAMP. 3 Increased concentrations of cAMP prevent platelet aggregation and cyclooxygenase activity 4 and inhibit the production of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukins-1β and −6. 5 In human medicine, PTX is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

production of proin flammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. 2 Pentoxifylline also has the ability to inhibit activation of B and T cells, 3 decrease adhesion and aggregation of leukocytes, 4 and modify

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

administration. Before clinical application of SDDs in dogs, additional in vivo studies, including evaluation of other biomarkers such as other MMPs, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and interleukin-6 that might support clinical improvement, but also

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-ethoxy-4-methylcoumarin GSH Glutathione IFN Interferon IL Interleukin LPS Lipopolysaccharide MOMC 7-methoxy-4-methylcoumarin PNP p-Nitrophenol PNP-OH p-Nitrophenol hydroxylase PRF 7-pentoxyresorufin RAU Relative absorbance unit S10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

plasma sample obtained from horses in competition. Intra-articularly administered GCs have anti-inflammatory effects that are mediated by direct inhibition of nuclear factor-κB 15 and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2, -4, -6, -7, and -17

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research