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.2337/diabetes.47.9.1379 17 Sorli CH Zhang HJ Armstrong MB , et al . Basal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-interleukin 6 are dominant and coordinately regulated by interleukin 1 in the pancreatic islet . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

which GSE exerts anticataractogenic effects. Activation through phosphorylation of p38 is required for activation of activator protein-1, a trans -acting factor necessary for induction of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1, which are inflammatory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, such as interleukin-6, 15 tumor necrosis factor-α, 16 prostaglandin E 2 , 17 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, 18 as well as the production of nitric oxide 19 ; all of these contribute to the inflammation process in the eye, which results in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intraocular inflammation produced by intravitreal human interleukins in rabbits . Exp Eye Res 1993 ; 56 : 275 – 279 . 10.1006/exer.1993.1036 37. Barza M . Animal models in the evaluation of chemotherapy of ocular infections . In: Zak O Sande MA

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

induced by cytokines associated with inflammation, such as interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. 16,17 Cyclooxygenase-1 produces PGs important for many normal physiologic functions, such as gastrointestinal mucosal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intensity of aqueous humor flare. 24,31,32 Mediators of BAB breakdown include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P, interleukins, nitrous oxide, and bradykinin. 27

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019 ; 60 ( 5 ): 1571 – 1580 . doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-25698 10.1167/iovs.18-25698 118. Ehrich D , Tripathi B , Tripathi R , Duncker G . Effects of interleukin-1beta and dexamethasone on the expression of matrix

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Interferons are a group of multifunctional secreted proteins, or cytokines, produced by the body in response to stressful stimuli including the detection of certain molecules such as viral nucleic acids, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1, or tumor necrosis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research