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-α in bronchial epithelial and venous endothelial cells. 12 Interleukin-23, a member of the IL-12 family, is a heterodimer consisting of a p19 subunit that is closely related to the IL-12 p35 subunit and a p40 subunit that is common to IL-12

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

healing is an extremely complex process that cannot be adequately described by the effects of the molecules measured in the present study. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines (eg, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, or tumor necrosis factor-α) that might

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-β in most samples; for IL-2 and IL-6 in half of the samples; and for iNOS in only 1 sample. Interleukin-8 transcripts were not detected in any sample ( Table 2 ). Nucleated cells in the CSF of horses with CSM had gene expression mainly for TNF

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the level of protein expression. Interleukin-8 is primarily produced by macrophages and endothelial cells. Interleukin-8 is considered an inflammatory mediator and a chemotactic agent for neutrophils, and its expression occurs secondary to tissue

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Interleukin-10 was assessed for its potent anti-inflammatory activity because it may suppress proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-α. Because the determination of an association between EIPH and inflammation at a molecular level may assist in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

IL Interleukin RFO Raffinose family oligosaccharide RT-qPCR Reverse transcription quantitative PCR Th T-helper a. Duolac, Biofaktor, Skierniewice, Poland. b. TRIzol reagent, Invitrogen, Life Technologies, Carlsbad, Calif. c. NanoDrop

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

differentiation 80 Ct Threshold cycle GALT Gut-associated lymphatic tissue IFN Interferon IL Interleukin RT-qPCR Reverse transcription quantitative PCR Footnotes a. Ross 308 broilers, Aviangen Inc, Huntsville, Ala. b. Sigma-Aldrich GmbH

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

increased and that of versican is decreased. 32 Furthermore, exposure of equine articular cartilage to interleukin-1β elicits increases in gene expression of versican but decreases in gene expression of aggrecan. 33 Gene expression of both ADAMTS-4 and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

North Am 1999 ; 25 : 333 – 344 . 10.1016/S0889-857X(05)70071-5 16. Frisbie DD Ghivizzani SC Robbins PD , et al. Treatment of experimental equine osteoarthritis by in vivo delivery of the equine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in interleukin-1-stimulated equine articular chondrocytes . Am J Vet Res 2005 ; 66 : 1985 – 1991 . 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1985 14. Vandesompele J De Preter K Pattyn F , et al. Accurate normalization of real

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research