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10 minutes, and 40 cycles at 95°C for 15 seconds and 60°C for 1 minute. Fluorescence signals were measured at the end of each cycle. All reactions were performed in duplicate. Interleukin-4, IL-5, and IL-13 gene expression were standardized to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. In our study reported here, blocking the JNK/SAPK pathway significantly changed the expression of key proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1β, IL-18, and IL-12 expression increased at early time points after infection, when the JNK/SAPK pathway was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mediator of suppression of macrophage antimicrobial activity. Interleukin-10 transcription has been attributed to activation of the MAPK-p38 pathway. 6,10,11 Addition of a neutralizing anti–IL-10 antibody or induction of chemical blockade of the MAPK-p38

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the somatotrophic axis. ABBREVIATIONS bGH Bovine growth hormone BRD Bovine respiratory disease GH Growth hormone IBRV Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus IFN-γ Interferon γ IGF Insulin-like growth factor IL-6 Interleukin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of interleukin-2, 28 and a cytokine interleukin-10 orthologue. 29 Immune responses of sheep to the orf virus involve neutrophils, dendritic cells, T cells (of which CD4 + predominate), B cells, and antibodies. 16,18,28,30,31 Increases in CD4

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

viremia and a peak in the tumor necrosis factor-α serum concentrations. 4 This alteration in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, together with a diminished production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10), 4 in such coinfected calves

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 10.1210/endo.140.1.6608 37. Peltier MR , Liu WJ , Hansen PJ . Regulation of lymphocyte proliferation by uterine serpin: interleukin-2 mRNA production, CD25 expression and responsiveness to interleukin-2 . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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interleukin 4 and 5 genes . Nucleic Acids Res 1992 ; 20 : 5173 – 5179 . 10.1093/nar/20.19.5173 16 Tagle DA Swaroop M Lovett M , Magnetic bead capture of expressed sequences encoded within large genomic segments . Nature 1993 ; 361 : 751

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

layered over a density gradient followed by centrifugation and PBM cell aspiration. Isolated PBM cells were stimulated for 72 hours in medium (RPMI-1640 cell culture medium containing human recombinant interleukin-2 [29 U/mL], e penicillin [50 U

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

systemic phase, increases in circulating concentrations of interleukin-6 and AGP have been detected. 7 In humans, the combination of seropositivity for C trachomatis and concentrations of CRP that are at the higher end of (but still within) the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research