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of this article was not to exhaustively review all literature published since 1988, but to focus on aspects of animal bites (dog and cat bites in particular) that were novel or noteworthy with respect to previously unrecognized injuries or cause of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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; however, permanent liver damage rarely occurs. The exact mechanism of vascular injury is not well understood. It has been postulated that organ damage may be caused by a toxin produced by leptospires, which may mediate some pathophysiologic effects. 11

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

bacterial cultures. 3,9,27,42 Entry typically occurs through the mucous membranes or via small wounds and abrasions in the skin. Most reported laboratory-acquired infections have occurred via cutaneous injuries or inhalation of infectious aerosols during

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

apparent pathologic effect in fish, it is often associated with fish skin and mucus. 35 Human infections with E rhusiopathiae are typically obtained during contact or handling of animal tissues; an existing wound or injury sustained during animal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

host susceptibility to B anthracis infection. 17–19 Lethal toxin causes hypoxic tissue injury, liver failure, and shock 20 ; injection of LT results in death in various susceptible animals. 20–23 Furthermore, LT inhibits the expression of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

tissue. Injuries to gingival tissues are common in many species and can become infested with screwworms ( Figure 3 ). Figure 3— New World screwworm larvae in the mouth of a sheep. (Photographed by M. Campos Pereira, University of São Paulo

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, or Anopheline spp), exposure to infectious aerosols, handling of aborted fetal materials, or percutaneous injury during slaughtering or necropsy of viremic animals. 21,22,55 It is unclear whether humans have any important biological role as

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association