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and cats. ROS Free radicals are molecules with 1 or more unpaired electrons in the outer shell. Because not all of the species that cause oxidative injury are free radicals (eg, hydrogen peroxide), a more appropriate term is ROS. The ROS are

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Reduced food intake is an important clinical sign that can result from a myriad of chronic diseases (eg, CKD, congestive heart failure, cancer, or liver disease) as well as acute illness or injury. Reduced food intake can lead to insufficient

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

rodents subjected to increased amounts of oxidative stress, l -carnitine reduced oxidative injury, enhanced recovery from oxidative stress, and aided cognitive function after recovery. 106 Cognitive function improved in aging dogs fed a combination of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

oxidative stress and inflammation, which can cause cellular injury and tissue damage. 14 The reported high prevalence of obesity, particularly in mature patients, and the high frequency of osteoarthritis in dogs and cats emphasize the importance that

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

salmonellosis. Enterocyte invasion stimulates increased vascular permeability and edema within villi, injury and sloughing of enterocytes, effusion of a large amount of neutrophils and protein-rich fluid into the intestinal lumen, and formation of a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

identified as the primary cause of sentinel events across all categories. Sentinel events were defined as an “unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof.” 7 In a Canadian study, 4 investigators

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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overlooked is the use of these products in young, healthy animals before musculoskeletal trauma, injury, or the onset of osteoarthritis. This may be particularly salient in breeds of animals predisposed to joint disorders or in athletic dogs prior to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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would be equivalent to a dose of approximately 130 to 140 mg of EPA and DHA/kg of BW 0.75 for a 10-kg dog; Table 1 ). Osteoarthritis and joint health —Inflammatory pathways play a critical role in chondrocyte response to injury and subsequent repair

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and resultant hypokalemia in cats consuming low-sodium diets have been reported, 41 and progressive renal injury from hypokalemic nephropathy is a concern. Although nearly one-fourth of the feline

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

effects may differ; thus, caution must be exercised, and treated animals must be monitored closely. Vitamin D toxicosis is most commonly diagnosed after the development of hypercalcemia and is a subsequent risk for acute kidney injury and soft tissue

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association