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Abstract

Objective

To identify the cause and mechanisms of injury in gastroesophageal ulcer disease in market weight swine.

Design

Comparison of mechanisms of injury caused by HCI with those caused by short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in gastric mucosa.

Animals

Pigs weighing 30 to 40 kg.

Procedure

Gastric tissues were studied in Ussing chambers; short-circuit current (Isc) and electrical resistance (R) were recorded in response to treatment, and tissues were examined histologically.

Results

60 mM mucosal acetate abruptly (≤ 75 minutes) and irreversibly abolished Isc at pH ≤ 4.5, whereas R decreased more slowly. These data were associated with cell swelling and vesicle formation in mid-zonal layers, followed by sloughing of the outer barrier, erosion into deeper zones, and finally, ulceration. Mucosal HCI at pH > 1.5 was ineffective; however, at pH 1.5, HCI induced an abrupt decrease in R, followed by a slow decrease in Isc, an effect opposite to that caused by SCFA. Serosal addition of HCI rapidly abolished Isc suggesting a barrier to free H+ diffusion from the mucosal solution.

Conclusions

Undissociated SCFA rapidly penetrate the outer barrier and acidify underlying viable tissue. Cellular acidification inhibits Na pumping and osmoregulation, resulting in cell swelling and necrosis. In contrast, HCI induces an increase in outer barrier permeability before accessing the transporting cells, a much longer process (≥ 5 hours) requiring a lower pH. These studies suggest that microbial production of SCFA may be important in the pathogenesis of porcine gastric ulcers. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:564-573)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of low-flow ischemia and reperfusion of the large colon on mucosal architecture were determined in horses. Twenty-four adult horses were randomly allocated to 3 groups: sham-operated (n = 6), 6 hours of ischemia (n = 9), and 3 hours of ischemia and 3 hours of reperfusion (n = 9). Low-flow ischemia was induced in horses of groups 2 and 3 by reducing colonic arterial blood flow to 20% of baseline values. Systemic hemodynamic and metabolic variables were maintained constant and in a normal physiologic range. Full-thickness biopsy specimens were obtained from the left ventral colon for histomorphologic and morphometric examination at baseline and at 30-minute intervals for 6 hours; additional biopsy specimens were collected at 185, 190, and 195 minutes (corresponding to 5-, 10-, and 15-minute periods of reperfusion in group-3 horses). There were no differences among groups at baseline or across time in group-1 horses for any of the histopathologic variables. There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in percentage of surface mucosal disruption, estimated and measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, mucosal hemorrhage, mucosal edema, and cellular debris index during 0 hour to 3 hours, compared with baseline, and from 3 hours to 6 hours, compared with 3 hours in horses of groups 2 and 3. Estimated percentage depth of mucosal loss and cellular debris index were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in group-3 horses, compared with group-2 horses during the interval from 3 to 6 hours. There were trends toward greater percentage of surface mucosal disruption and mucosal edema during the early phase of reperfusion (3 to 4 hours) and greater mucosal hemorrhage, measured percentage depth of mucosal loss, and mucosal interstitial-to-crypt ratio during the late phase (4 to 6 hours) of reperfusion in group-3 horses vs group-2 horses. Reestablishment of colonic arterial blood flow after low-flow ischemia caused greater mucosal injury than did a comparable period of continued ischemia. Thus, reperfusion injury was detected in the large colon of horses after low-flow arterial ischemia. The serial mucosal alterations that developed in the colon were comparable in horses of groups 2 and 3; however, reperfusion exacerbated colonic mucosal injury.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Microvascular permeability of the jejunum of clinically normal equids and microvascular permeability associated with 60 minutes of ischemia (25% baseline blood flow) and subsequent reperfusion were investigated. Eight adult horses were randomly allotted to 2 equal groups: normal and ischemic/reperfusion injury. Lymphatic flow rates, mesenteric blood flow, and lymph and plasma protein concentrations were determined at 15-minute intervals throughout the study. Microvascular permeability was determined by estimates of the osmotic reflection coefficient, which was determined when the ratio of lymphatic protein to plasma protein concentration reached a constant minimal value as lymph flow rate increased (filtration-independent lymph flow rate), which occurred at venous pressure of 30 mm of Hg. Full-thickness jejunal biopsy specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each experiment, and were prepared for light microscopy to estimate tissue volume (edema) and for transmission electron microscopy to evaluate capillary endothelial cell morphology.

The osmotic reflection coefficient for normal equine jejunum was 0.19 ± 0.06, and increased significantly (P < 0.0001) to 0.48 ± 0.05 after the ische- mia/reperfusion period. Microscopic evaluation revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in submucosal and serosal volume and capillary endothelial cell damage in horses that underwent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results indicate that ischemia/re-perfusion of the equine jejunum caused a significant increase in microvascular permeability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Sheets of mucosa from the jejunum of healthy horses were mounted in incubation chambers and bathed with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution. Changes in tissue function and histologic appearance were compared after the following conditions: (1) control conditions for 30 minutes with 95% O2/5% CO2 in the gas phase; (2) same conditions as control, except incubation with superoxide dismutase (300 U/ml) during the last 18 minutes; (3) anoxia for 15 minutes with 95% N2/5% CO2, followed by reoxygenation for 15 minutes; (4) same conditions as 3, except incubation with superoxide dismutase during reoxygenation; and (5) anoxia for 30 minutes. Anoxia reduced the accumulation of radiolabeled l-alanine and caused cell swelling, as indicated by an increase in tissue water and tissue Na contents. Reoxygenation improved the tissue's ability to accumulate l-alanine, but tissue swelling continued after this treatment. Tissue Na content and l-alanine accumulation were restored to control values by reoxygenation with superoxide dismutase in the bathing medium. The grade of structural damage, as indicated by separation of eptihelial cells from villi, was equally severe after all, but control, conditions. Superoxide dismutase had no effect on the tissue control conditions. Results of this study suggest that superoxide radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of reperfusion injury in equine jejunal mucosa and that this may be of clinical importance in cases of small intestinal strangulation obstruction.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To add objective measurements of the characteristics of evoked injury potentials (EIP) and their relations to clinical severity in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord damage.

Animals

25 dogs with naturally acquired spinal cord compression attributable to disk extrusion or vertebral fracture at the level of the thoracolumbar junction and with various degrees of paresis/paralysis.

Procedure

Spinal cord potentials evoked by tibial nerve stimulation were recorded every 5 to 10 mm at the lamina level in the vicinity of the cord compression. This allowed an EIP to be recorded even in the least handicapped dogs. A computer model yielded information about the waveform changes of the EIP in the vicinity of conduction blocks.

Results

The EIP waveform changed from biphasic to monophasic a short distance caudad to the location of spinal cord compression. Location of a maximal conduction block was measured in relation to position of the electrodes recording this waveform change. The distance between the assumed conduction block and the actual spinal cord compression was larger in the most affected dogs. The amplitude of the EIP was not related to severity of the clinical picture; however, the proximity of the recording electrode to the spine influenced the amplitude and the waveform of the EIP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Change in the EIP waveform from biphasic to monophasic makes it possible to estimate the conduction block location along the spinal cord. A large distance between the assumed conduction block and site of actual cord compression could be an objective argument to confirm severity of a lesion. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:300–306)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

colon is usually left in the horse because volvulus typically occurs at the base of the colon, where the affected portion of the colon cannot be easily accessed via the standard ventral midline surgical approach. Injury is characterized by diffuse loss

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

volvulus is dependent on the degree of ischemic injury to the colon and severity of the systemic response. The survival rate without surgical resection has been reported to be as low as 34.7%, 2 but resection improved the survival rate of affected horses

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hypersensitivity disorders), eosinophils are believed to be the principal effector cell, and they initiate and sustain tissue injury and disease pathogenesis in at least a subset of these disorders. 9 However, when eosinophilic disorders are associated with other

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

removal of the kidney from the donor to completion of vascular anastomoses in the recipient and removal of the vascular clamps. Some degree of renal injury, including the potential for acute or chronic dysfunction, is expected to result from that period of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

primary hemostasis following small-vessel injury, which generally is induced as a small incision distolateral to the accessory carpal bone. The lack of an in vivo bleeding test (such as template bleeding time) was a limitation of the present study. Because

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research