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Introduction Intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) in dogs is a naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to pathomechanisms and treatment. 1 – 4 SCIs resulting from IVDH

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

outcome measure in clinical trials and development of improved diagnostic testing methods. 29 Dogs with severe, chronic thoracolumbar SCI commonly develop signs of spasticity weeks to months after the initial injury. 3,5,30 However, no clinical

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Discussion of the pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury often refers to primary and secondary events. Primary spinal cord injury refers to the initial mechanical insult to the neuroparenchyma and can be subclassified into compression

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Injury to the skull or brain caused by an external force (ie, head trauma) is common in dogs, identified in 25% of dogs with severe blunt trauma. 1 Causes include road traffic accidents, falls from heights, dog fights, assaults by humans or other

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

depending on the muscle, nerve, and stimulation frequency and is nearly 100% for the tibial nerve in humans. 13 F-wave persistence decreases in humans with injuries to the proximal portion of nerves or nerve roots, as does H-reflex persistence. 17 We have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

brachial plexus integrity and function in mallard ducks and may be clinically applicable in the diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus; evaluation of toxic neuropathies associated with chemicals such as lead, 12,13 arsenic, 14 and n

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-induced injuries. 20–22 In humans, fibrous connective tissue that forms at the site of the bone defect associated with IODA usually enables good stability to be maintained. 19,23,24 Toy-breed dogs, which are susceptible to AAI, have been determined to develop DAs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

massive extrusion vs chronic progressive protrusion), and secondary injury. Biochemical and vascular events that start at the time of injury and peak 4 days later result in local hypoxia, demyelination, axonal degeneration, and malacia. 3 Severe injury or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

useful marker of injury to the brain within a specific time period, although a correlation with severity of the injury was not investigated. Glutamate toxicosis may have a major role in the progression of ischemic disease in the brain. 42,43,46,47 This

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

resolve inflammation, 13 reduce the pain associated with chronic neuropathic lesions and chronic joint disorders, 12,14–17 and reduce acute soft tissue injury edema after second-degree ankle sprain, 18 compared with standard care (rest, ice compress

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research