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During training or racing, horses may reach and sustain exercise intensities capable of overwhelming the musculoskeletal system's response capacity, which can result in severe and sometimes fatal musculoskeletal injuries. These have been reported

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Degenerative injury to the PA in horses causes chronic forelimb lameness because of pain arising from the navicular bone and soft tissues of the PA, such as the CSLs, distal sesamoidean impar ligament, podotrochlear bursa (ie, NB), and deep

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Musculoskeletal injuries are the most frequent cause of wastage in race and sport horses, and the type and condition of the surface used for racing and training affect the occurrence and nature of injuries. 1–7 The incidence of severe or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

were different from all prior reports. For the selected indicators of skeletal muscle damage in the present study, there was no association of clenbuterol or exercise conditioning with muscle injury. The finding that serum CK activity did not increase

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Injury of flexor tendons is common in recreational and competitive horses. Some injuries are a result of an extreme overload on the tendon and cause a gross tear. More often, however, injuries develop over a longer period and are the consequence

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Casts and splints are frequently used for stabilization of musculoskeletal injuries, including fractures and postsurgical support of sites distal to the elbow joint or stifle joint. 1–3 However, casts may be associated with soft tissue

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints can be a debilitating condition that affects llamas of any age. Hyperextension can affect a single limb as a result of chronic overloading following injury to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

a second site of injection for the TMT joint provides numerous advantages. For example, in horses with suspected or confirmed sepsis, the medial approach can be used for diagnostic procedures, especially when there has been a traumatic injury on the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In performance horses, the SDFT is the most commonly injured soft tissue structure; the incidence of SDFT injury in Thoroughbred racehorses is 8% to 43%. 1–4 During maximal exercise, the SDFT operates close to its biomechanical limits. 5 Injury

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Musculoskeletal injuries are a prevalent problem in horses, with injury to flexor tendons or the suspensory ligament accounting for up to 46% of all limb injuries in performance horses and racehorses. 1–3 Of these injured structures, the SDFT has

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research