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record measurements of extent of projectile integrity, fragmentation, and penetration; brain tissue destruction; and brainstem involvement. The radiologist also recorded whether the injury would have resulted in instantaneous death, which was defined as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

conditions are met. These conditions are that the individuals performing the euthanasia are well trained in firearm safety, safety measures are in place to prevent human injury, and an appropriate anatomic aiming point is used. 7 , 8 Euthanasia by gunshot

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Livestock raised in commercial settings may require euthanasia for many reasons (eg, disease, injury, or an excess of males in a dairy herd). In the dairy goat industry, there is currently limited information available regarding feasible and cost

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

samples of brain tissues to determine whether the nonpenetrating captive bolt caused traumatic brain injury. Investigators in those studies 22,23 were successful in establishing the efficacy of nonpenetrating captive bolt administration in sheep; however

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-associated cat deaths (with the exception of owner-requested euthanasia) were included in the count of cat deaths. This included cats that were known to be nonadoptable at intake due to disease or injury or that were deemed untreatable after evaluation, as well

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the effectiveness of these devices is dependent on selection of the proper anatomic site and directional aim of the device. To cause immediate loss of consciousness and brain injury that leads to death, a PCB must damage the cerebral hemispheres as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

would have to be considered carefully against the decreased risk of esophageal injury. In the few studies 4,5 that have been published on the subject, owner compliance has been reported to range from 20% to 80%. The investigators of those studies

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

used to evaluate muscle pain, spinal cord disease, soft tissue injury, and the efficacy of therapeutic agents for humans with osteoarthritis, headache, and fibromyalgia. 19,23,24 In 1 study, 19 plasma concentrations of SP were 27-fold higher in human

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

permeability of muscle cell membrane. 31 Additionally, physical injuries such as muscle fiber tears may result in increased activities of blood creatine kinase. Plasma creatine kinase activity is a good indicator of muscular activity or damage. 5 In the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

manufacturer of the captive bolt described in those reports, 7,8 the unit operates via a percussive method with or without the use of air injection, and shooting a penetrator against the cortex of an animal causes an injury to its nervous system. 9 The use of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research