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Statement of the Problem A dog was examined because of spinning and tail chasing of 2 months' duration. The behavior had quickly escalated in frequency and intensity and resulted in repeated traumatic injury and infection of the tail

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

and degenerative disease such as arthritis; neurologic causes can include psychomotor epilepsy, sensory neuropathies, central brain lesions, and infections. 1 Other causes considered included traumatic injury or presence of a foreign body; generalized

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

fostering; the 2 dogs had the same sire. The half-sibling showed compulsive pacing in wide circles, especially at night, and was eventually euthanized at the age of 8 months because of severe injuries sustained while pacing. The breeder acknowledged later

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, including pain (bruising, fracture of the tail, and vertebrae injury) and neurological disease (seizures, vestibular disease, and encephalitis), were ruled out. 1 , 2 Due to lack of abnormal findings, despite extensive medical examinations, the clinical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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evaluation did not reveal evidence of injury or trauma. Results of a physical examination were unremarkable. Diagnosis Differential diagnoses for the frequent, intense vocalization or screaming behavior included fear-induced behavior (alarm call

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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. Treatment The owner's treatment goal was to stop the dog's tail-chasing behavior and avoid further self-inflicted injuries. In addition, he was concerned about the dog's welfare. A treatment plan was prepared that included a behavior management program and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

may suppress certain negative behaviors, it may result in response substitution if the underlying anxiety is not addressed. It also increases the risk of an escalation of aggression, in which an injury could occur. 2,14 Interactions between the dog

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

examination, as the horse was being led in from a paddock, it had pulled back hard against its lead to avoid other horses crowded at the gate and had become impaled on a fence post. The horse suffered a severe injury to the inner thigh that required weeks of

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The owner was advised regarding the risk of human injury associated with housing an aggressive dog. A gradual desensitization-counter-conditioning (DSCC) program 8 was outlined that progressed from the owner allowing the dog to be introduced to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Overall KL Love M . Dog bites to humans—demography, epidemiology, injury, and risk . J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 ; 218 : 1923 – 1934 . 10.2460/javma.2001.218.1923 12. De Keuster T Jun H . Aggression toward familiar people and animals . In

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association