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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the toxic effects of amitraz in dogs and their reversal by various doses of atipamezole.

Animals

6 male 1-year-old Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were given 100 mg of amitraz/kg of body weight, PO. Atipamezole was administered at 3 dose rates. Clinical examination and blood sample collection were performed regularly for 48 hours to examine biological parameters and determine the toxicokinetics of amitraz as well as the efficacy of the antidote. A specific high-performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed to determine plasma amitraz concentrations.

Results

Clinical signs of toxicosis included sedation, bradycardia, polyuria, hypothermia, and hyperglycemia, all of which could be related to the α2-agonist activity of amitraz, and were reversed by low doses of atipamezole (50 μg/kg, IM), a potent α2-antagonist, within 10 minutes after injection. Peak plasma concentrations were observed after 5 hours, and the elimination half-life was long (about 24 hours).

Conclusions

All clinical and biological effects observed during the course of amitraz poisoning could be attributed to the parent compound itself and were reversed by low doses of atipamezole. The half-life of amitraz was substantially longer than that in other studies because of the high dose administered.

Clinical Relevance

Atipamezole can be administered IM to dogs with severe amitraz poisoning to reverse all the effects observed. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1506-1510)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, parasites (eosinophilia), or stress (neutrophilia and lymphopenia). 22 Hyperglycemia has been associated with stress, 23,24 and stress may have been associated with venipuncture. Baseline glucose concentrations were within the reference range; however

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research