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that of hyperglycemia. 1,35,36 Similarly, the horses in the present study had hyperinsulinemia but not all had hyperglycemia. 7 Hyperinsulinemia has been attributed to excess cortisol in diseased horses. 1 Muscle mass loss in horses with PPID is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentrations of glucose. 23,24 Endothelial cell dysfunction resulting from chronic hyperglycemia is characterized by increased production of ET-1, decreased production of NO, and adoption of a relatively prothrombotic phenotype. 25 In addition, it is known

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

causes of laminitis, and experimentally induced hyperinsulinemia results in the development of laminitis in ponies. 3,6,7 In other species, hyperglycemia increases permeability of the endothelium (ie, glucotoxicosis); therefore, because plasma glucose

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cortisol. 5 In horses with PPID, some clinical findings, such as muscle wasting, are consistent with signs of glucocorticoid excess in other species. Polyuria and polydipsia can be caused by cortisol excess, hyperglycemia, and low serum antidiuretic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research