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Various investigators have evaluated the percentage of moisture content of equine hoof walls, with reported values ranging from 16% to 36%. 1,2 , a–c One study c involved use of various methods, including drying with potassium phosphate, freeze

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In this study, we described water-insoluble proteins extracted from the germinative regions (stratum internum and coronary band epithelium) and the cornified outer surface (stratum medium) of the equine hoof wall. Two major types of polypeptides were identified: the intermediate filaments (if) and the if-associated proteins. The if, including keratins, composed a major portion of this fraction, had electrophoretic mobilities on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the range of 40 to 80 kDa, and reacted with acidic or basic keratin-specific monoclonal antibodies. Differences in the composition of keratins between germinative layers and the stratum medium were seen. Another less well-characterized group of polypeptides associated with the if also were extracted with the water-insoluble polypeptide fraction. These associated proteins had an apparent molecular weight between 10 and 30 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and contained a higher percentage of sulfur-containing amino acids than did the if. Water-insoluble protein fractions compared favorably with those found in other less-specialized keratinizing tissue with respect to size, immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibody, and amino acid composition.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To measure blood flow in the palmar digital artery and laminae corium, using ultrasonic and laser Doppler flowmetry, respectively.

Animals

6 healthy horses.

Procedure

Digital blood flow and laminar perfusion, respectively, were measured by placing a flow probe around the palmar digital artery and a laser Doppler flow probe in a hole in the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall. All horses were given saline (0.9% NaCI) solution (1 L, IV, during a 30-minute period). Seven days later, each horse was given endotoxin (0.1 μg/kg of body weight, IV, in 1 L of saline solution, during a 30-minute period). Digital blood flow, laminar perfusion, heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, and clinical signs of endotoxemia were recorded throughout a 240-minute period. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to evaluate changes in outcome variables.

Results

Treatment with saline solution did not cause a change in measured variables. All horses had mild clinical signs of endotoxemia. Endotoxin treatment caused a significant decrease in digital blood flow and increases in heart rate and body temperature. Laminar perfusion decreased after endotoxin treatment.

Conclusions

Endotoxin administration caused a profound transient decrease in digital blood flow and a less substantial decrease in laminar perfusion.

Clinical Relevance

Horses with clinical endotoxemia were likely to have decreased digital blood flow and, possibly, decreased laminar perfusion, potentially predisposing them to vascular alterations within the digits. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:192–196)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

loaded immediately after transport to the laboratory and served as the control specimen. The limbs were disarticulated at the distal interphalangeal joint, the hoof was positioned with the dorsal hoof wall perpendicular to the ground, and the force

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.r-project.org/ . Accessed Jul 1, 2007. References 1. Hood DM Wagner IP Brombaugh GW . Evaluation of hoof wall surface temperature as an index of digital vascular perfusion during the prodromal and acute phases of carbohydrate-induced laminitis in horses

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

isolated as described in detail elsewhere. 9–11 Briefly, the distal portions of both forelimbs were disarticulated at the metacarpophalangeal joint, and 2 fullthickness segments of the dorsal hoof wall were isolated via sectioning with a band saw. The

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

basement membrane in hoof wall growth. Given the controversy surrounding the importance of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of laminitis, it was also interesting to note that of all examined collagen type VII–degrading MMPs, only amounts of total and also active

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Blocks of laminar tissue (approx 15 × 10 mm) were obtained by sharp dissection from the proximal and distal aspect of the dorsal portion of the hoof wall. Specimens were cut in halves and fixated in formaldehyde (4%) for light microscopy or glutaraldehyde

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research