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the loads applied to the hooves. 7 , a The hoof wall is relatively hard and insensitive and acts as a barrier to protect the structures within the hoof capsule. The shapes of the hoof capsule and the inner structures affect how forces generated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Equine hoof mechanics and function have been investigated for many years. One of the most reliable methods with which to assess hoof wall distortion is extensometry, a technique that uses electrical resistance strain gauges to identify changes in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

In horses, the mechanical properties of the hoof wall are, to a large extent, a function of its structural arrangement. Grossly defined parts of the hoof protect underlying structures of the foot and initiate dissipation of concussive forces on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

pressure palmarly (or plantarly), but results of a study 5 in which a 59% increase in lateral hoof wall strain resulted from a 15° to 20° heel elevation suggest that severe wedging may be detrimental to successful laminitis treatment. Increasing the weight

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and MCIII), MCPJ center of rotation, distal interphalangeal joint center of rotation, and dorsolateral hoof wall (just proximal to the horseshoe nails; Figure 1 ). Radiographs aided the accurate identification of the proximal end of the MCIII and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

presence of white line separation as a prerequisite for TTN seems logical. The white line is an inherently weak junction of the hoof wall and sole and is composed primarily of laminar horn produced by the laminar corium. Laminar horn undergoes suboptimal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with a dynamic range of ± 500 g in each axis was screwed onto the dorsal part of the hoof wall of the left forelimb with known orientation relative to the hoof wall. To correct any misalignments and transform the accelerometer coordinate system to the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

made in the medial aspect of the IMU casing to increase the surface area for attachment of the IMU to a hoof wall. Notice on the lateral view the local optical reference frame with the origin for the z- and x-axes between the cranial and caudal markers

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

between the lateral aspect of the hoof wall and the lateral edge of the force platform perpendicular to the hoof and the distance from the toe of the hoof to the cranial edge of the force platform were measured). Each horse was initially positioned on the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(metacarpophalangeal) joints as well as both hind limbs over the tuber coxae; stifle, tarsal, and fetlock (metatarsophalangeal) joints; and the lateral hoof wall at the level of the coffin (distal interphalangeal) joint for all hooves. Markers placed on the rider were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research